Political Schools of Thought

04/28/12

Gina Lee M. Santos

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•Liberalism •Conservatism •Socialism •Communism
04/28/12 Gina Lee M. Santos 2

as well as free from restraint and from prejudice.Liberalism • The word "liberal" derives from the Latin "liber" (meaning "free" or "not a slave"). 04/28/12 Gina Lee M. In everyday use. Santos 3 . it means generous and open-minded.

Liberalism John Locke (1632-1704) English philosopher who is often called the father of liberalism In his writings he argued in favor of limited government and protection for individual rights. Rejected the popular doctrine of the divine right 04/28/12 Gina Lee M. 4 . Santos of kings.

Santos 5 .Liberalism • John Stuart Mill • popularized and expanded liberal ideas in the mid19th Century • utilitarian liberalism 04/28/12 Gina Lee M.

Types of Liberalism • Classical Liberalism • Social Liberalism – freedom of citizens – Freedom from – right to an coercion education.– progressive Santos 6 . health – laissez-faire care and a living economic policy wage – opposes the – provision of welfare state welfare 04/28/12 Gina Lee M.

What Makes A Liberal? • Liberals stress equality of opportunity. Santos 7 . reject special treatment for those with privilege • Equality before the law 04/28/12 Gina Lee M.

freedom of religion. Santos 04/28/12 8 . samesex marriage) Gina Lee M. freedom of assembly • Liberals are thought to be more permissive and open to change than Conservatives (e.What Makes A Liberal? • Freedom is a leading value and it is pluralistic: freedom of association.g.

progressive taxation. equalization payments.Different Kinds of Liberals – Egalitarian liberalism – welfare state. state intervention – Libertarian liberalism – rejects attempts of state to achieve social equality by manipulating the economy 04/28/12 Gina Lee M. Santos 9 .

Key Liberal Principles • • • • • • • • Responsible Government Civil Liberties Constitutionalism Individualism Rule of Law Majority Rule Popular Sovereignty International Co-operation 04/28/12 Gina Lee M. Santos 10 .

or nationallydefined beliefs and customs) in the face of external forces for change. and is critical of proposals for radical social change 04/28/12 Gina Lee M. observe. a commitment to preserve tradition while recognizing there needs to be gradual improvement • Favors tradition (in the sense of various religious.Conservatism • From the Latin word “conservare” – to keep. Santos 11 . guard. cultural.

Santos 12 .Founder of Traditional Conservative Ideology Edmund Burke -Anglo-Irish Philosopher -British writer & Member of Parliament in Late 18th century -the father of Conservatism in Anglo American circles 04/28/12 Gina Lee M.

authority.– Wrote Reflection on the Revolution in France. – Advocated conserving tradition. humans need guidance and direction from traditional authorities for society to enjoy peace and stability. and moral values. M. – Asserts: • That because of the profound human tendency toward irrational behavior. Santos 04/28/12 Gina Lee 13 .

Santos 14 .Types of Conservatism • Cultural • Religious • Fiscal 04/28/12 Gina Lee M.

Santos Pragmatism 15 .Key Conservative Principles • Reverence for the past • Constitutional continuity • Opposition to Revolution • The Religious Basis of the State • The priority of duties over rights • Loyalty • Common Sense and 04/28/12 Gina Lee M.

and share the following views: • Public ownership of key industries • Vast public job programs – all who want to work will be put to work (“Build jobs. Santos Socialism 16 .” – Karl Marx (Father of Socialism) – American socialists favor an expanded role of govt. not jails”) • High taxes for wealthy • Cut in defense spending – against war • Social and economic equality is goal • Against capitalist “free market economy” • Healthcare and childcare provided for all • Free post secondary education (college) 04/28/12 Gina Lee M.– “It is the transitional stage between capitalism and communism.

but instead an argument that wealthy exploit working classes vision of society based on economic equality belief in cooperation. Santos 17 . characterized by: rejection of the idea that the wealthy “deserve their wealth” because they created it .Socialism A reaction to the Industrial Revolution. production for benefit of all idea of public ownership of means of production 04/28/12 Gina Lee M.

used for the common good – Capitalism exploits the very people who create society’s wealth. • Moralism – Division of rich and poor is evil – Capitalism is fundamentally unjust – The ideal future = peace.  04/28/12 Gina Lee M.Socialism’s principles • Egalitarianism (equality)  – Humankind will be unified and cooperative – Wealth owned in common. Santos 18 . social justice and true liberty for all.

SOCIALISM PRINCIPLES • man is naturally good – a bad environment makes people bad • gov’t should regulate economy – public ownership • equality is important. but the common good is the ultimate goal • people give gov’t authority. and can take it away  change happens through REFORM .

• This means the way that power. Communism Socialism Capitalism Feudalism Primitive Communism . • They saw the way countries developed in stages. industry and finance are controlled.Communism • Marx and Engels studied the history of the world’s economies.

Santos 21 .04/28/12 Gina Lee M.

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