# JJ102- Electric Technology

Capacitors

Unit Objectives
Upon completion of this unit, you will be able to:

• List the three (3) factors that determine the capacitance of a capacitor • Explain electrostatic charge • Determine the difference between polarized and nonpolarized capacitors

Introduction
Capacitors are “devices that oppose a change of voltage”, at their base level are a simple electrical storage device yet the applications for these devices are varied and wide ranging. Capacitors can be used in timing circuits, as electronic filters, and for power factor correction among other uses. Capacitors are used in both AC and DC circuitry.

The distance between the plates 3.The Capacitance of a Capacitor 1. The area of the plates 2. The type of “dielectric” used .

Charging a Capacitor Electrons are removed from one plate and deposited on the opposite plate .

Charging a Capacitor Current flows until voltage across capacitor is the same as the source voltage .

Charging a Capacitor The capacitor remains charged after the source of voltage (battery) is removed from the circuit .

Capacitor “Leakage” •Leakage is current flow through the dielectric •Proportional to the resistance of the dielectric and the charge across the plates .

Electrostatic Charge • An “electrostatic charge” refers to electrical charges that are stationary • Static electricity is an electrostatic charge • Electrostatic charges are created by removing electrons from one plate and depositing them on the other • Energy in a capacitor is stored in the form of an electrostatic charge .

Dielectric Stress • A lack of electrons = a positive charge • An excess of electrons = a negative charge .

or stored energy • Like a drawn bow. the potential energy is being stored • When a charged capacitor is discharged it can produce currents of thousands of amperes for short periods of time .Dielectric Stress • When the atoms of the dielectric are under stress they are creating a potential energy.

Dielectric Stress • Dielectric stress is proportional to the voltage difference between the plates • Excessive voltage can cause the dielectric to break down (short) and permit current flow between the plates • Capacitors have a voltage rating that should not be exceeded • Preventing excessive supply voltage to a capacitor is critical to its life span .

Dielectric Constants • A number is assigned to different materials as an indicator of their “insulating quality” in a capacitor • This number is referred to as its dielectric constant • Changing the dielectric material of a capacitor changes its capacitance properties .

5 mF .Dielectric Constants • Assume that a capacitor uses “air” as its dielectric material and has a total capacitance of 1 mF • Changing the dielectric material to “dry paper” would change the capacitance of the capacitor to 3.

Capacitor Ratings • A “farad” is the basic unit of capacitance named after Michael Faraday. a famous scientist • Symbolized by the letter “F” • One farad = the change of 1 volt across the plates results in the movement of 1 coulomb of current • A farad is such a large basic unit of capacitance that it is seldom used for capacitor values .

000 “pF” Picofarad = 1/1.000.000 “nF” Nanofarad = 1/1.000 The Picofarad is sometimes referred to as a micro/microfarad with the symbol “mmF” .Capacitor Ratings More common designations of capacitance: “mF” Microfarad = 1/1.000.000.000.000.000.

(Farad) = Cas(Coulomb) Bezaupaya(Volt ) .Capacitance characteristic of a capacitor to store electrical energy Capacitance.

Elecrical Energy in Capasitor 1 E  QV 2 1 1 Q 2 E  CV dan E  ( ) 2 C 2 2 .

Calculate the charge and energy can be stored by the capacitor.Sample.??????? .. A 8pF capacitor is connected to the 600V power supply.

88 x 10-9 Joule Elctrical Energy. 2 . Q  CV (8 x10 12 )( 600 ) = 4.8 x1012 )(600)  2.Solution Charge.8 x 10-7 C = 1 E  QV  (4.

Capacitors in Parallel • Has the same effect of increasing the plate area of one capacitor .

b)Voltage drop on each capacitor is equal VC1  VC 2  VC 3  V j c) Charge in each capacitor QC1  Vj C1 . QC 2  Vj C2 and QC 3  Vj C3 .

Capacitors in Series • Has the effect of increasing the distance between the plates / reducing the total capacitance of the circuit .

VC 2  Qj C2 dan VC 3  Qj C3 c) Charge For each Capasitor Q1  Q2  Q3  Q j .b) Voltage Drop is not equal VC1  Qj C1 .

. a) Total capacitance b) The charge of the capacitors c) Voltage Drop across each capacitor. Get.sample Two (2) of the capacitor has a capacitance value of each and 10μF 6μF connected in series with a 200V power supply.

Q1  Q2  Q j  C jV  (3.solution a) Total Capacitance.75F Cj  = C1  C2 6  10 b) Charge for each Capasitor . C j (6)(10) C1C2  3.75x10 6 )(200)  750x106  750C c) Voltage Drop for each capasitor 750x106 V1    125V 6 C1 6 x10 Qj 750x106 V2    75V 6 C2 10x10 Qj .

b) Reduce the spark when the switch opens the circuit. c) Reducing the radio repeat interruptions in the starter circuit pendaflour lights. e) To keep the electrical charge. . d) Strengthen the electrical current.The Use Of CAPASITOR a) Increasing the power factor of electrical circuits.

The Two Basic Groups of Capacitors Polarized & Non-Polarized .

Non-Polarized Capacitors • Not sensitive to polarity connection • May also be referred to as AC capacitors • Can be used in AC/DC circuits .

Paper / Oil Filled Capacitors .

Polarized Capacitors Also known as electrolytic capacitors They are sensitive to polarity Used only in DC circuits Reversing polarity could cause capacitor damage or explosion Electrolytic capacitors can have very high capacitance in a small case .

Variable Capacitors Capacitance range can be changed within a certain range Contains a moveable set of plates The plates are interleaved with the stationary plates to increase or decrease the capacitance value .

A Trimmer Capacitor • Contains one stationary plate and one moveable plate • An adjusting screw moves the moveable plate to change the capacitance value .

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Please Check Your CIDOS for Assignment Thank YOUUUUU !!!!! Selamat Hari Raya Maaf Zahir Batin WAN NOR HARMAN BIN WAN YAHAYA JJ102 Electrical Technology .

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