lnS18uMLn1 lLl?

lnC
ILIGn1 CCNDI1ICNS
ŴlMC Ŷ lnsLrumenL meLeorologlcal condlLlons
ŴIMC Ŷ Ilsual meLeorologlcal condlLlons
ILIGn1 kULLS
Ŵll8 Ŷ lnsLrumenL fllghL rules
ŴIl8 Ŷ Ilsual fllghL rules
uurlng Lhe flrsL fllghL Lhere were noL lnsLrumenLs Lo ald Lhe plloL Lo
fllghL Lhe shlpţ so Lhe only ald he can counL on was Lhe human
percepLlon bodyŦ 1hls ald fulflll Lhe Llme and dlsLance of fllghL whlch
were no more Lhan a few meLers and seconds under good weaLher
condlLlonŦ 1hrough Lhe Llme Lhe fllghL Llme and dlsLance becomes
longer and ln consequence more dlfflculLţ speclally durlng a bad
weaLherţ so Lhe use of lnsLrumenLs was necessaryŦ
ILIGn1 INS1kUMLN1S
ŴLllS Ŷ LlecLronlc fllghL lnformaLlon sysLem
ŴlMS Ŷ lllghL managemenL sysLem
Ŵul Ŷ uLomaLlc dlrecLlon flnder
ŴI8 Ŷ IeryŴhlgh frequency omnldlrecLlonal range
ŴuML Ŷ ulsLance measuremenL equlpmenL
Ŵ1Cn Ŷ 1acLlcal alr navlgaLlon
ŴL8n Ŷ Long range navlgaLlon
ŴCÞS Ŷ Clobal poslLlon sysLem
ŴlLS Ŷ lnsLrumenL landlng sysLem
ŴMLS Ŷ Mlcrowave landlng sysLem
ŴlnS Ŷ lnerLlal navlgaLlon sysLem
nUMAN IAC1Ck
A btooJ flelJ tbot exomloes tbe lotetoctloo betweeo
peopleţ mocbloesţ ooJ tbe eovltoomeot fot tbe potpose of
lmptovloq petfotmooce ooJ teJocloq ettotsŦ
Orientotion ln fllghL ls very lmporLanL Lo avold dangerous fllghL
condlLlonsŦ rlenLaLlon ls malnLalned Lhrough Lhe bodyƌs sensory
organs ln Lhree areasť visuo/ţ vestibu/or {motion) ond posturo/
{position)Ŧ 1he eyes malnLaln vlsual orlenLaLlonŦ 1he moLlon senslng
sysLem ln Lhe lnner ear malnLalns vesLlbular orlenLaLlonŦ 1he nerves
ln Lhe sklnţ [olnLsţ and muscles of Lhe body malnLaln posLural
orlenLaLlonŦ When healLhy human belngs are ln Lhelr naLural
envlronmenLţ Lhese Lhree sysLems work wellŦ
OwN P££P1lON5 Ol Ol£N141lON5 lN 1n£ 8OuY
n llluslon or false lmpresslon occurs when lnformaLlon provldes by
Lhe sensory organs ls lnadequaLe or mlslnLerpreLedţ lL happens
when Lhe human body ls sub[ecLed Lo Lhe forces of fllghLŦ Many
llluslons ln fllghL can be creaLed by complex moLlons and vlsual
scenes whlch avlaLors encounLers under adverse weaLher condlLlons
and aL nlghLŦ Some of Lhese llluslons may lead Lo spaLlal
dlsorlenLaLlon or lnablllLy Lo deLermlne accuraLely Lhe alLlLude or
moLlon of Lhe alrcrafL ln relaLlon Lo Lhe earLhƌs surfaceŦ
£Y£5 Ŵ Ilslon ls Lhe ma[or sense for orlenLaLlon and can be affecLed
by smoklngţ alcoholţ oxygen deprlvaLlonţ and ageţ speclally aL nlghL
and deflclency of IlLamln ln Lhe dleLŦ
1here are Lwo bllnd spoL ln
Lhe human eyeţ one ls
presenLed durlng Lhe day
and Lhe oLher durlng Lhe
nlghLŦ
Ilsual lnformaLlon can be
lnfluenced by surroundlng
and lnLerpreLed wrong by Lhe
bralnŦ
xygen deprlvaLlon exampleţ when cllmbţ Lhe vlslon ls affecLed and
reLurnlng Lo Lhe lnlLlal levelţ Lhe vlslon recovery ls noL as easyŦ
£45 Ŷ 1he mosL hazardous llluslons leadlng Lo spaLlal dlsorlenLaLlon
are creaLed by lnformaLlon recelved from Lhe moLlonŴsenslng sysLem
ln each lnner earŦ
N£I£5 Ŷ nerves ln Lhe bodyƌs sklnţ musclesţ and [olnLs consLanLly
sends slgnals Lo Lhe bralnţ whlch slgnals Lhe bodyƌs relaLlon Lo
gravlLyŦ 1hese slgnals Lell Lhe plloL hls or her currenL poslLlonŦ
cceleraLlon wlll be felL as Lhe plloL ls pushed back lnLo Lhe seaLŦ
lorces creaLed ln Lurns can lead Lo false sensaLlon of Lhe Lrue
dlrecLlon of Lhe gravlLyţ and may glve Lhe plloL a false sense of whlch
way ls upŦ
Þ1lCL lLuSln
Iarlous Lerraln feaLures and aLmospherlc condlLlons can
creaLe opLlcal llluslonsŦ 1hese llluslons are prlmarlly
assoclaLed wlLh landlngŦ Slnce plloLs musL LranslLlon from
rellance on lnsLrumenLs Lo vlsual clues ouLslde Lhe fllghL
deck for landlng aL Lhe end of lnsLrumenL approachţ lL ls
lmperaLlve Lhey be aware of Lhe poLenLlal problems
assoclaLed wlLh Lhese llluslonsţ and Lake approprlaLe
correcLlve acLlonŦ
Some of Lhe llluslons leadlng Lo landlng errorsŦ
Ŵkunway w|dth |||us|onŦ
9toblemŦ 1he plloL wlll fly aL lower approachţ wlLh Lhe rlsk
of sLrlklng ob[ecLs along Lhe approach paLh or landlng
shorLŦ pposlLe problem can be achleve by a wlderŴLhanŴ
usual runway wlLh Lhe rlsk of levellng ouL hlgh and landlng
hardţ or overshooLlng Lhe runwayŦ
Ŵkunway and terra|n s|opes |||us|onŦ
9toblemŦ 1he plloL wlll fly aL lower approachŦ uownsloplng
runway and downsloplng approach Lerraln has Lhe
opposlLe effecLŦ
kunway narrower and w|der |||us|on
Downs|op|ng and Ups|op|ng kunway |||us|on
ŴIeatures|ess terra|n |||us|onŦ
9toblemŦ n absence of surroundlng ground feaLuresţ
creaLes Lhe llluslon Lhe alrcrafL ls aL hlgher alLlLude Lhan lL
acLually lsŦ 1hls llluslonţ someLlmes referred Lo as Lhe
ºblack hole approach"ţ causes plloL Lo fly a lower approach
Lhan ls deslredŦ
ŴJater refract|onŦ
9toblemŦ 8aln on Lhe wlndscreen can creaLe an llluslon of
belng aL a hlgher alLlLude due Lo Lhe horlzon appearlng
lower Lhan lL lsŦ 8esulLlng ln a lower approach Lhan Lhe
requlredŦ
Ieature|ess terra|n |||us|on
Jater refract|on
N|ght f||ght
Ŵnaze
9toblemŦ CreaLes Lhe llluslon of belng aL a greaLer dlsLance
and helghL from Lhe runwayţ causlng a lower approachŦ
pposlLe llluslon ls obLalned ln a clear alrţ resulLlng ln a
hlgh approachŦ
ŴIog
9toblemŦ CreaLlon of an llluslon of plLchlng upŦ
ŴGround ||ght|ng |||us|ons
9toblemŦ LlghLs along a sLralghL paLhţ such a road or llghLs
on movlng Lraln can be mlsLaken for runway and approach
llghLsţ creaLlng Lhe llluslon of less dlsLance Lo Lhe runway
and fly aL a hlgher approachŦ
Iog
Ground ||ght|ng |||us|ons

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