THE URINARY SYSTEM

1. KIDNEYS 2. URETERS 3. URINARY BLADDER 4. URETHRA

Small (5 inches long, 2.5 inches wide, and 1 inch thick), dark red, beanshaped organ against dorsal body, in retroperitoneal (beneath parietal peritoneum) position, in superior lumbar (T12 to L3) region. Since crowded by liver, right kidney is slightly lower than left.

RENAL HILUM – medial indentation ADRENAL GLAND – atop each kidney FIBROUS CAPSULE – encloses kidney and gives glistening appearance PERI-RENAL FAT CAPSULE – fatty mass surrounding kidneys which cushions against blow RENAL FASCIA – outermost capsule and holds kidneys against muscles of trunk wall

REGIONS 1. RENAL CORTEX Outer region, light in color. 2. RENAL MEDULLA Dark red-brown area that has many triangular regions with striped appearance (renal or medullary pyramids) and separated with renal columns. 3. RENAL PELVIS Continuous within the ureters and up to the calyces which extends to the pyramids and collects urine.

BLOOD SUPPLY 1. Renal artery 2. Segmental artery 3. Interlobar artery 4. Arcuate artery 5. Cortical radiate artery 6. Cortical radiate veins 7. Arcuate veins 8. Interlobal veins 9. Renal vein

AORTA

RENAL ARTERY

SEGMENTAL ARTERY

INTERLOBAR ARTERY

CORTICAL RADIATE VEIN

PERITUBULAR CAPILLARIES

ARCUATE ARTERY

INFERIOR VENA CAVA

ARCUATE VEIN

EFFERENT ARTERIOLE

CORTICAL RADIATE ARTERY

RENAL VEIN

INTERLOBAR VEIN

GLOMERULUS

AFFERENT ARTERIOLE

NEPHRONS Structural and functional units of kidneys which is responsible for forming urine.
TWO MAIN STRUCTURES

A. GLOMERULUS B. RENAL TUBULE

A knot of capillaries with high pressure and acts as a blood filter.
AFFERENT ARTERIOLE feeds glomerulus EFFERENT ARTERIOLE receives blood that has passed through glomerulus

A knot of capillaries with high pressure and acts as a blood filter.
AFFERENT ARTERIOLE feeds glomerulus EFFERENT ARTERIOLE receives blood that has passed through glomerulus

PERITUBULAR CAPILLARIES
Capillary bed that arises from efferent arterioles and drain into interlobar veins leaving the cortex. Low pressure vessels that cling closely to the whole length of renal tubules which are adapted for absorption instead of filtration.

GLOMERULAR OR BOWMAN’S CAPSULE closed end of the renal tubule and surrounds the glomerulus PODOCYTES inner cell layer of capsule with highly modified octopus-like cells THE TUBES 1. proximal convoluted tubule 2. loop of henle 3. distal convoluted tubule 4. collecting duct

GLOMERULAR OR BOWMAN’S CAPSULE closed end of the renal tubule and surrounds the glomerulus PODOCYTES inner cell layer of capsule with highly modified octopus-like cells THE TUBES 1. proximal convoluted tubule 2. loop of henle 3. distal convoluted tubule 4. collecting duct

CORTICAL NEPHRONS Most nephrons are cortical nephrons because they are located entirely in the renal cortex. JUXTAMEDULLARY NEPHRONS Situated close to the cortex and medulla junction, and their loop of henle dip deep into the medulla.

A. GLOMERULAR FILTRATION B. TUBULAR REABSORPTION C. TUBULAR SECRETION

A non-selective, passive process in which fluid passes from blood into glomerular capsule. Once in capsule, fluid is called filtrate (blood plasma without proteins and cells). In 24 hours, kidneys filter 150 to 180 liters of blood plasma

Filtrate contains many useful substances (H20, glucose, amino acids, ions) that must be returned to the blood through absorption by peritubular capillaries. This process begins as soon as filtrate enters the proximal convoluted tubule. PASSIVE ABSORPTION BY OSMOSIS – H2O ACTIVE TRANSPORT – glucose, amino acids POOR REABSORTION OF NITROGENOUS WASTE PRODUCTS a. UREA – formed by liver as end product of protein breakdown when amino acids are used to produce energy b. URIC ACID – when nucleic acids are metabolized c. CREATININE – metabolism in muscle tissue

This is essentially tubular reabsorption done in reverse. Hydrogen, potassium, creatinine, and drugs are removed from peritubular blood and secreted into the filtrate.

CHARACTERISTICS OF URINE

Contains nitrogenous wastes and unneeded substances, and in 24 hours, 1 to 1.8 liters of urine is produced. Clear, pale to deep yellow due to urochrome (pigment that results from destruction of hemoglobin). Sterile, slightly aromatic and has ammonia odor (action of bacteria on urine solutes) Acidic pH of around 6, and SG is 1.001 to 1.035 since it is more dense than water.

ABNORMAL URINARY CHARACTERISTICS
GLUCOSE
PROTEINS PUS (WBC AND BACTERIA) RBC HEMOGLOBIN BILE PIGMENT

excessive intake of sugary foods, diabetes mellitus
physical exertion, pregnancy, glomerulonephritis, hypertension urinary tract infection bleeding in urinary tract (trauma, kidney stones, infection) tranfusion reaction, hemolytic anemia liver disease (hepatitis)

Two slender tubes (10 to 12 inches long and ¼ inch in diameter. Runs behind peritoneum from renal hilum to posterior aspect of bladder. Passageway that carry urine from kidneys to bladder. Smooth muscle layers in their walls contract to propel urine into bladder by peristalsis.

A smooth, collapsible, muscular sac (detrusor muscles) that stores urine temporarily. Located retroperitoneally in pelvis just posterior to the symphysis pubis. Three openings, two ureter openings and single opening of urethra (trigone). In males, prostate gland surrounds neck of bladder and empties into urethra. When moderately full, it reaches 5 inches long, can hold 500 ml of urine, but capable of holding more than twice amount. Once 200 ml is collected, stretching of bladder wall activates micturition or voiding.

Thin-walled tube that carries urine by peristalsis from bladder to outside of the body. SPHINCTERS a. internal urethral sphincter involuntary b. external urethral sphincter voluntary URETHRAL OPENING a. women 1 ½ inches long, external orifice lies anteriorly to vaginal opening b. men 8 inches long, opens at tip of penis

1. Body Fluids and Body Compartments a. intracellular fluid b. extracellular fluid - intravascular space - interstitial space

2. Link between Water and Salt
3. Regulation of Water Intake and Output water intake: thirst mechanism water output: urine, stool, perspiration HORMONES a. antidiuretic hormone (ADH) b. aldosterone

1. Blood Buffers One or two molecules that act to prevent dramatic changes in hydrogen ion concentration when acids or bases are added. - bicarbonate (HCO3) - phosphate (PO4) - proteins 2. Respiratory System Control Eliminates carbon dioxide (CO2) from the blood. 3. Renal Mechanism - excreting bicarbonate ions - conserving (reabsorbing) or generating new bicarbonate ions

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