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BNEC201 Construction Technology 2

Building Services Lecture 2: Ventilation


Adapted from the presentation compiled by Mr. Ian Young

Semester A 2011/12

Raymond Boyd

Subjects Covered

Objectives of Ventilation Infiltration Natural Ventilation Mechanical Ventilation and Air Conditioning Air Supply Systems Air Extraction Systems All-Air Systems Air and Water Systems All-Water and Packaged Systems Local Extraction Ventilation Energy Efficiency and System Selection

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Objectives of Ventilation

Dilute contamination to a level which is safe and acceptable Limiting level of carbon dioxide for 8hr occupation is 0.5% Usual clean air requirement 2.4 litres/sec/person Odour removal Dust & other contaminant removal Humidity control

Relative humidity < 30% - risk of drying of mucous membranes Relative humidity > 70% (with high temperature) interferes with perspiration and feels clammy

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Infiltration

Infiltration is the fortuitous leakage of air through a building due to imperfections in the structure -
(CIBSE, 2006)

Infiltration is dependent on build quality. Driven by


Wind Buoyancy, or stack effect


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Infiltration by wind

Wind direction

+ ve

- ve

High pressure
ve = pressure

Low pressure
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Infiltration by stack effect


Warm air escapes at the top of the Building.

Depends on Temperature difference Height

Biggest effect is at ground floor

Air entering is heated, becomes less dense, and rises. Outside pressure is higher than inside.

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Infiltration Routes

Cracks around service entries Porous material Around door and window frames Timber floors Cavity wall to floor connections Cavity wall to dry liner connections Loft hatch Flues and chimneys Around panel walling elements

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Typical Extent of Infiltration

Conventionally draught-proofed building ~ 0.5 ach

{ach = air changes per hour = volume flow rate (m3/hr)/ volume of space (m3)}

Good sealing technique can take this to 0.2 ach At < 0.5 ach, ventilation must be designed-in Infiltration heat loss can be comparable with fabric losses permitted in building regulations
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Natural Ventilation at The Environmental Office: Building Research Establishment (BRE) Watford

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Natural Ventilation

Exploits wind and stack effects Design with natural cooling Uses Cooling stacks Vent louvres Windows Hollow floor design May be Passive Active
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Building Research Establishment (BRE) Watford

The office plan with its glazed facades exploits natural daylight and cross ventilation via the BMS
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Mechanical Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems

Much higher energy consumption than natural ventilation. Used when

Natural ventilation cannot give required environmental control throughout the building. Zone control is required. There is a substantial cooling load. There are process or health and safety ventilation requirements
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Mechanical Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems

Main types of system


All-air Air and Water All-Water and Packaged Systems

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Mechanical Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems

Plant usually divided into


Supply Extraction (includes recirculation and/or heat recovery)

Some buildings are supply only, others extraction only Most commercial buildings will have both supply and extraction
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simplest approach: natural ventilation + low pressure hot water heating

boiler
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Radiators or convectors
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natural ventilation but adding cooling in the most sensitive area using a split system

Boiler supplies radiators and DHW


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Radiators or convectors
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natural ventilation but provide heating and cooling throughout using a variable refrigerant volume system (vrv)

Boiler for DHW only


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predominantly natural ventilation but provide heating and cooling throughout using a vrv system, with mechanical ventilation in the core.

AHU

Boiler for DHW only


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This may sometimes be supply-only: supply and extract shown in the drawing.
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mechanical ventilation air and water fan coil system

Chiller condenser

AHU

Boiler supplies DHW, AHU and fan-coil units Chiller supplies AHU and fan-coil units (piping omitted for clarity)
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mechanical ventilation all air - constant air volume system


Chiller condenser AHU

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Boiler supplies DHW, AHU Chiller supplies AHU (piping omitted for clarity)
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All-Air HVAC Systems

The only medium providing cooling and humidity control is air. All cooling, filtration, de-humidification, humidification is done in central plant (air handling unit AHU), and air is ducted through the building.

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All-Air HVAC Systems

Heating can be done either in the central plant, or at zone re-heaters. Can be

constant volume, variable temperature (CAV) Variable volume, constant temperature

Distribution can be

Single duct Dual duct

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Simple All-Air CAV supply system


Air handling unit + Fresh Air Inlet Fan +

Conditioned Air to Spaces Room

filter Cooling coil


Heating coil humidifier

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Legionella bacteria in water systems


Risk Is the water converted to an aerosol? Is there a risk of the water becoming stagnant? Is the temperature above 20oC? Is there a source of nutrients in the water? High risk groups! See The control of legionella bacteria in water systems Approved Code of Practice and guidance
http://books.hse.gov.uk/hse/public/saleproduct.jsf?catalogueCode=9780717617722

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Typical AHU
University Facilities Management

photograph IA Young, by permission Glasgow Caledonian

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Selection Considerations for All-Air Systems


Advantages

Disadvantages

Low operating cost possible Heat recovery possible Quiet operation Ease of maintenance Simple to design Responsive to different zone loads

Space ducts are large Balancing & commissioning can be difficult Design co-ordination is vital

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Chilled water Hot water chiller + AHU boiler

Occupied Space

Occupied Space

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Air and Water Supply in an All-Air System


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Chilled water Hot water chiller + AHU boiler

+ Occupied Space

+ Occupied Space

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Air and Water Supply in an Air and Water System


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Air-and-Water Systems

Both air and water are distributed to provide heating and cooling. The central air handling plant usually meets the requirements for fresh, clean air and humidity control.

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Air-and-Water Systems

Zone or room plant controls the local temperature. Common types


Induction Primary air fan-coil systems Various piping schemes are possible, e.g. 2, 3 or 4 pipe schemes

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Simple Air and Water Induction Unit

Primary air Supply from AHU Water supply and return from boilers and chillers

mixing Induction nozzle

Heating/cooling coil
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Simple Horizontal Fan-Coil Unit


Fan + _ Primary Air from AHU Heating /cooling coil Water supply and return from boilers and chillers

mixing

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Selection Considerations for Air and Water Systems


Advantages Low space requirements Smaller AHU Individual zone/space control Energy saving Can use 100% outdoor air and avoid cross-contamination Disadvantages Imprecise control of temperature during intermediate seasons Limited humidity control capacity Risk of condensation Low ventilation rate

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All-water fan coil system

Heating/ Cooling coil

Outdoor air Water supply and return from boilers and chillers
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fan
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All-Water Systems

Not really air-conditioning, as no humidity control. Chilled and hot water supplies total thermal load. Ventilation is provided by outdoor air Similar to fan-convector for heating a naturally-ventilated building
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Selection Criteria All-Water System


Advantages Low capital cost Low space requirement Low running cost Flexible installation Disadvantages Ventilation rate not controlled Condensation in cooling mode Noise Dirt

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Packaged or Split Systems

Often referred to as HVAC Usually only heating or cooling plant Dont provide humidity control Operate a refrigeration cycle, extracting heat in the evaporator, and releasing it in the condenser.

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Simple Split System for office cooling


liquid refrigerant, phase conversion to a gas/ heat absorption, compression and phase transition back to a liquid again.

The cold side of the air conditioner contains the evaporator and a fan that blows air over the chilled coils and into the room. The hot side contains the compressor, condenser and another fan to vent hot air coming off the compressed refrigerant to the outdoors.

fan evaporator

Refrigerant pipework

condenser

fan Gas stage


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Liquid stage
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compressor
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Selection Considerations for Split or Packaged Systems


Advantages Can provide cooling for naturally-ventilated spaces Quick fix to overheating problem Flexible and easy to implement Heating and cooling available simultaneously Moderate capital cost Disadvantages Poor humidity control Noise High maintenance Refrigerant management Most require separate ventilation systems Not optimum in use of energy

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Supply or Extract Only Systems

Typical applications small/medium commercial or similar buildings Used where natural ventilation + heating and/or cooling fails to give sufficiently uniform control Cheaper to install Relatively coarse control of conditions Not easy to exploit energy recovery techniques

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Supply-only Systems

Filtered and heated or cooled outdoor air is supplied. High level vents or wall grilles allow air to escape from the pressurised space. Use where contaminants from outside air need to be kept out of the process. Use where there are no obvious process heat (or cooling) sources. Dont use where the process generates moisture, as it tends to drive the moisture into interstices in the structure

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Extraction-only Systems

A fan draws air through vents and grilles into the building Use where process materials need to be contained (can be combined with Local Exhaust Ventilation for capture). Use with processes that generate heat or fume, and capture close to source. Use with conventional convectors or radiators for heating Can be used with heat recovery systems, either air-to-air or air to preheat water.

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Local Extraction Ventilation


Used in addition to other ventilation systems Designed to remove contaminants Standard HSG 37 to comply with COSHH regulations Effectiveness depends on

Capture velocity Transport velocity Hood design Collection system design

COSHH - Control of Substances Hazardous to Health

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Simple LEV SystemTransport velocity


Capture velocity

vent

Fume or dust generation

Filter and Dust collector

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Energy Breakdown in Buildings


domestic
Naturally Ventilated Office
%, 11 %, 7 %, 4 electrical small power lighting
60 20 space heating

water heating

8 12

water heating electrical small power lighting

%, 78

space heating

Air Conditioned Office % Energy

10

16 lighting 8 water heating small power space heating

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20

space cooling

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Typical Breakdown of Energy Consumption by Building Type


(kWhrm-2year-1)
250 200 150 100 50 0 space heating water heating lighting machines cooling

domestic

naturally air conditioned ventilated office office


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(Nicholls, 2002)

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Energy Consumption by Building Type (kWhrm-2year-1)


500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

typical best practice

(Nicholls, 2002)
domestic naturally air conditioned ventilated office office
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Energy Efficiency and System Selection

Build tight and ventilate right Building regulations aim to


Avoid problems with poor air quality Reduce energy losses

Provide controllable natural ventilation paths

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Energy Efficiency and System Selection

Openable windows Extraction for moisture and odour Combine with heat recovery where practicable

Plate heat exchanger Thermal wheel Runround coil Heat pump

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References and Supplementary Reading

CIBSE, 2006, Guide A, Environmental Design 7th edition (also 6th edition 1998), London, The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers Nicholls R., 2002, Low Energy Design, Oldham, Action Energy (Interface Publishing), ISBN 09539409-2-6 Department of Trade and Industry, 1998 : Energy Consumption Guide 19: Energy Use in Offices,London, dti CIBSE, 1998, Guide F: CIBSE Energy Efficiency Guide, London, The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers HMG, 2002, The Building Regulations Part L Conservation of Fuel and Power, London, HMSO

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