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SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS

VARSHA VARDE

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Sampling Distribution Sampling distributions are probability distributions of sample statistics. We will mainly concentrate on Sample Mean X Sample Standard Deviation S=S(Xi-X)2/(n-1) Sample Proportion p

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NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
Let X be a Normal Variable with mean and Standard Deviation Then Z=( X- ) / follows a normal distribution with mean 0 and standard deviation 1 Z is called a standard normal variable Normal tables tabulate probabilities for Z

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Regardless of population Distribution Sampling Distribution of X& P is Normal when n 30


Sample statistics X P Mean p SD Test Statistics Z (x ) / /n (p p) / pq/n

/n
pq /n

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Sampling Distribution of Xwhen is not Known & S is used in place of


Sample statistics X n 30 X n < 30 X is normal Mean SD S/n S/n Test Statistics Z=(x ) /S /n t=(X ) /S /n With (n-1) degrees of freedom

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Students t - Distribution
Let X be Normal with mean m and SD Let X be Sample Mean & S be Sample SD Then t = (X- m)/ S/n follows t-Distribution with (n-1) degrees of freedom Thus t-distribution is dependent on sample size Critical values (for specified tail probabilities) are obtained from the t table
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t Distribution
The t distribution is a family of similar probability distributions as normal A specific t distribution depends on a parameter known as the degrees of freedom. As the number of degrees of freedom increases, the difference between the t distribution and the standard normal probability distribution becomes smaller and smaller. A t distribution with more degrees of freedom has less dispersion. The mean of the t distribution is zero.

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Examples.

(i) Find t0.05,9 = 1.833


(ii) Find t0.005,8 = 3.355 (iii) Find t0.025,10 = 2.228

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t- Table
Degrees of Freedom . . . 7 8 9 10 . . . Area in BothTails .20 .10 .05 .02 . . . 1.415 1.895 2.365 2.998 1.397 1.860 2.306 2.896 1.383 1.833 2.262 2.821 1.372 1.812 2.228 2.764 . . .
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.01

3.499 3.355 3.250 3.169


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t- Table
Degrees of Freedom . . . 7 8 9 10 . . . Area in Upper Tail .10 .05 .025 .01 . . . 1.415 1.895 2.365 2.998 1.397 1.860 2.306 2.896 1.383 1.833 2.262 2.821 1.372 1.812 2.228 2.764 . . .
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.005

3.499 3.355 3.250 3.169


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CHI SQUARE DISTRIBUTION


Let X be N(m,) then Z= (X-m)/ is N(0,1) Z2=(X-m) 2/2 follows a chi square distribution with 1 d.f S Zi2= S(Xi-m) 2/2 follows a chi square distribution with n d.f where n is sample size S(Xi-X) 2/2 follows a chi square distribution with n-1 d.f
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Chi Square Distribution

If we have a sample of n observations x1, x2, xn from a normal population with mean and variance 2 then the statistic n (xi )2/ 2 has a chi square distribution with n degrees of i=1 freedom and this statistic can be denoted by using the number of degrees of freedom as subscript to 2 as 2(n). However, if we replace by its estimate x obtained from the sample then the statistic n (xi x)2/ 2 has a chi square distribution with (n- 1) d.f i = 1 and this statistic can be denoted by 2 (n 1) Just like standard normal tables and t tables, chi square tables are also readily available.
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F-Distribution
Let two independent random variables X and Y be each normally distributed that is, X is N (1, 1) and Y is N(1, 2 ). Let x1, x2, , xn be a sample of size n taken from the first population and y1, y2, , ym be a sample of size m taken from the second population. The sample statistic n (xi - x)2 / (n 1) i=1 F =------------------------ m (yi y)2 / (m 1) i=1 follows a F distribution with (n 1) and (m 1) degrees of freedom, where (n 1) are the degrees of freedom for numerator and (m 1) are the degrees of freedom for the denominator. Like the other sampling distribution, tables for F distribution are also readily available.

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