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"People travel to wonder at the height of the mountains, at the huge waves of the seas, at the long course

of the rivers, at the vast compass of the ocean, at the circular motion of the stars, and yet they pass by themselves without wondering. -- St. Augustine


Nature of Values


personal convictions about what one should strive for in life and how one should behave
specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence (Rokeach, 1973)

All of us have a hierarchy of values that forms our value system. This system is identified by the relative importance we assign to such values as freedom, pleasure, self-respect, honesty, obedience and equality.
Values tend to be relatively stable and enduring.

A significant portion of our values is established in our early years

The process of questioning our values may result in a change. Values are important in OB because they lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation and because they influence our perceptions

Values can cloud objectivity and rationality.

Desirable end-states of existence Goals a person would like to achieve during lifetime Success

Preferable modes of behavior Means of achieving terminal values

Ambitious, Hardworking



Levels of Values
Personal Values Past experience & interactions with others Organisational Cultural Values Values Heart of Dominant beliefs held by Organisational Culture collective society

Types of Values

Work Values

Ethical Values

Intrinsic Work Values

Extrinsic Work Values

Justice Values

Utilitarian Values

Moral Rights Values

Intrinsic Values Interesting work Challenging work Learning new things Making important contributions Responsibility and autonomy Being creative

Extrinsic Values High pay Job security Job benefits Status in wider community Social contacts Time with family Time for hobbies


personal convictions about what is right and wrong


Moral Rights

Distributive Justice

Managers must become capable of working with people across different cultures. Because values differ across cultures, an understanding of these differences should be helpful in explaining and predicting behaviour of employees from different countries. Geert Hofstede surveyed 1,16,000 IBM employees in 40 countries in their work related values found managers and employees vary on 5 value dimensions of national culture. Power Distance: The degree to which people in a country accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally/ relatively equal (low power distance) to extremely unequal (high power distance)






Individualism vs Collectivism: Degree to which people in a country prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of a group. Quantity of life vs Quality of life: Quantity: degree to which values such as assertiveness, the acquisition of money and material goods and competition prevails. Quality: The degree with which we value relationships, show sensitivity and concern for the welfare of others. Uncertainty avoidance: Degree to which people in a country, prefer structured or unstructured situations.; Risk taking. Long term and short term orientation: Long: look to future and value thrift and persistence Short: Values past and present; emphasis respect for traditions and fulfilling social obligations.


High Power Distance

High Uncertainty Achievement Avoidance Orientation Malaysia Japan

Long-Term Orientation China




France Japan




USA USA Japan Hong Kong China Collectivism Low power Distance Germany India


South Korea
Netherlands USA




Low Uncertainty Nurturing Avoidance Orientation

Short-Term Orientation

Assertiveness Future

Orientation Gender Differentiation Uncertainty Avoidance Power Distance Individualism / Collectivism In-Group Collectivism Performance Orientation Humane Orientation


of formal rules and standards, based on ethical values and beliefs about what is right and wrong, that employees can use to make appropriate decisions when the interests of other individuals or groups are at stake


motivational state arising from holding logically inconsistent cognitions Incompatibility between two or more attitudes, or between attitudes and behavior

to eliminate dissonance:

Add consonant cognitions Reduce importance of dissonant cognitions Change one of the dissonant cognitions


in boring pegturning task Paid $1 or $20 to lie to next participant about the experiment, or no lie control group Afterwards asked whether they liked the task

Attitude is more important than the past, than education, than money, than circumstances, than what other people think or say or do. It is more important than appearances, giftedness or skill. It will make or break a company, a church or a home. -Charles Swindoll


are so many things in life you have little control over, such as the political environment, the weather, the job market, the economy. But there is one aspect of your life that you do have the power to control, and thats your attitude. and every moment of every day you decide what your attitude will be --about yourself, your job, your family and friends, change, responsibilities, etc.


An organized predisposition to respond in a

favorable or unfavorable manner toward a specified class of objects (Shaver, 1977)


on a bipolar affective or evaluative dimension (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) of interrelated beliefs that reside in long-term memory and are activated when the attitude object or issue is encountered (Tourangeau &
Rasinksi, 1988)



statements or judgments concerning objects, people or events (Robbins, 2007)

general and enduring positive or negative feeling toward some person, object, or issue association between an object and an evaluation in memory Attitude is a learned internal response to a given stimulus, resulting in observable behavior


An attitude is defined as a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favourable or unfavourable manner with respect to a given object. While Values represent global beliefs that influence behaviour, across all situations, attitudes relate only to behaviour directed towards specific objects, persons or situations. Values and attitudes generally, but not always, are in harmony. Study: Job attitudes of middle aged male employees stable over a time frame of 5 years even those who changed jobs / occupation. Attitudes are translated into behaviour through behavioural intentions. An individuals intentions to engage in a given behaviour is the best predictor of that behaviour.

Experience with Object Mass Communication

Classical Conditioning

Economic Status


Operant Conditioning

Neighbourhood Family & Peer Groups

Vicarious Learning

Formation of Attitudes

Attitudes vary in a number of important ways

Valence (positive or negative) Intensity Strength Accessibility Basis

Affective Component Emotional or feeling

Cognitive Component Opinion or belief

Work Attitudes Negative / Positive

Behavioral Component Intention to behave in a certain way towards someone or something

Attitudes and Behavior

Attitude: Act

Behavior Intent Subjective Norm


Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen)

Attitudes and Behavior

Behavior beliefs Evaluation Attitude: Act

Behavior Intent Normative beliefs Motivation to Comply Subjective Norm


Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen)

Attitudes and Behavior

Behavior beliefs Evaluation Attitude: Act

Behavior Intent Normative beliefs Motivation to Comply Subjective Norm



Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen)


of feelings, beliefs, and thoughts about how to behave that people currently hold about their jobs and organizations


existence Family security Sense of accomplishment Self-respect Social recognition Exciting Life


people feel at the time they actually perform their jobs. transitory than values and attitudes.




Personality Work situation Circumstances outside of work

Positive Excited Enthusiastic Active Strong Peppy Elated

Negative Distressed Fearful Scornful Hostile Jittery Nervous


short-lived feelings that are linked to specific cause or antecedent can feed into moods labor



Display Rules

Feeling Rules

Expression Rules


Beliefs Attitude Feelings Behavioral Intentions

Emotional Episodes




(most stable)

(moderately stable)

Moods and Emotions

(most changing)

Job related attitudes tap +ve or ve evaluations that employees hold about aspects of their work environments. 3 major attitudes:

Job Satisfaction: an individuals general attitude towards his/her job. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds +ve attitudes toward the job.
Job Involvement: measures degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his/her job & considers his/her perceived performance level important to self worth. People with high job involvement strongly identifies with and really care about the kind of work they do. Organization commitment: A state in which an employee identifies with a particular orgn and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the orgn.




the degree to which people like their jobs How people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs
Work characteristics

A pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job experiences

Job Satisfaction(s)


(1961): Need Satisfaction



Work Adjustment Model

20 reinforcers (based on Murrays 12 needs)


(1976): Values

Job satisfaction results from appraisal of ones job as attainingones important job values Provided these values are congruent with basic needs

Objective characteristics

Perceived characteristics Needs/ Values Job Satisfaction(s)

Objective characteristics

Perceived characteristics

Frame of Reference Needs/ Values

Job Satisfaction(s)

chink in the armor: are perceptions veridical with objective reality?

Information Processing model View



Social construction of attitudes vs objective characteristics) Salancik & Pfeffer (1978) Roots in Schachter & Singer (1962) Attitude statements based on: Perception of affective components Social context cues Self-attributions about behavior
Generalized Arousal Cues




& Ross (1985)

Surprising stability over time/situations


Bell & Clausen (1986)

Childhood temperament predicts adult JS


et al. (1989)

JS has hereditary component (30%)

General questions about behavioral genetics Gerhart (1987): Situation AND Disposition

Compared effects on current satisfaction of prior satisfaction, pay, job complexity Job complexity had strongest effect

Why isnt extrinsic satisfaction heritable? Why is JS heritable? A JS gene?


NA/PA may be key factor

Some reason to believe that it may have biological basis, and thus inheritable


high in NA are more likely to:

Notice negative stimuli Evaluate stimuli in negative terms Recall negative stimuli Create interpersonal conflict dissatisfaction

Weiss & Cropanzano (1996)

Events Affect JS

Weiss et al. (1999)

Disposition Mood at work JS

Brief (1998)
Disposition Interpretations JS

Brief & Weiss (2002)

Interpretations Disposition Mood JS

Fuller et al. (2003)

Strain Stress events Mood JS

Low Turnover

Organisational Factors Outcomes Expected / Valued

Job Satisfaction Low Absenteeism

Group Factors

Outcomes Received Individual Factors

High Turnover

Job Dissatisfaction High Absenteeism

A persons job is more than the obvious activities of shuffling papers, waiting on customers, or driving a truck. Jobs require interaction with co-workers & bosses, following orgn rules and policies, meeting performance standards, living with working conditions which often are less than ideal, etc. Happy workers are not necessarily productive workers. However, productive workers are normally happy workers. Orgns with more satisfied workers tend to be more effective than with less satisfied workers. Generally dissatisfied workers absent themselves more. Liberal sick benefits also contribute. Also if you have interesting side activities. Satisfaction is negatively related to turnover. Other factors include the labour market, expectations about other job opportunities, etc.


Extroverts tend to have higher levels of job satisfaction than introverts


Those with strong intrinsic work values is more likely than one with weak intrinsic work values to be satisfied with a job that is meaningful but requires long hours and offer poor pay



tasks a person performs people a jobholder interacts with surroundings in which a person works the way the organization treats the jobholder


Influence: influence that individuals or groups have on a persons attitudes and behavior

Coworkers Family Other reference groups (unions, religious groups, friends) Culture



Promotion Supervision



Job Involvement

Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)

Employee Well-Being

Organisational Commitment


and beliefs about the employing organization as a whole

Affective commitment Continuance commitment


commitment is more positive for organizations than continuance commitment





Customer Satisfaction

Workplace Deviance

Motivation to attend work is affected by Job satisfaction Organizations absence policy Other factors

Ability to attend work is affected by Illness and accidents Transportation problems Family responsibilities

Fairness Job Satisfaction



Employee dissatisfaction can be expressed in a number of ways. Rather than quit, employees can complain, insubordinate, steal orgn property, etc.