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INTRODUCTION

Communication: A social process in which individuals employ symbols to establish and interpret meaning in their environment.

What are the most common ways of Communicating?


Spoken word. Written word. Visual images. Body languages.

Can the misunderstanding of few words literally mean the difference between Life and Death?

Are you aware of the worst aviation disaster occurred in 1977 in Canary Islands??? Mis-interpretation of instructions. Heavy accents. Improper Terminology.

70% of our waking hours are spend in communicating writing, reading, listening, speaking.

70 % or all our communication efforts are: misunderstood, misinterpreted, rejected, disliked, distorted, or not heard (in the same language, same culture)!

Communication must include both the transference and the understanding of meaning.

An Idea no matter how great ,is useless until it is transmitted and used by others

FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION
Control. Motivation. Emotional Expressions. Information.

PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION
Sender

Feedback
Barriers

Message

Receiver

Mode

THE TWO WAY COMMUNICATION PROCESS


Developing Encoding

an Idea

the Message the Message

Transmitting

Reception

of the Message

THE TWO WAY COMMUNICATION PROCESS


Decoding

of the Message / Rejection of the Message

Acceptance Using

the Information

Giving Feedback

MODE OF COMMUNICATION

Verbal
Oral Written

Non Verbal
Body language Sign language Facial Expressions Spatial relationship

ORAL COMMUNICATION
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

Speed Feedback

Distortion
Many Barriers

WRITTEN COMMUNICATION
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

Tangible
Verifiable

Time consuming
Lack of Feedback

NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION


Sign

language Body language Spatial relationship Facial expressions Vocals ASTOUNDINGLY, 70% OF ALL COMMUNICATION IS NONVERBAL

NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION


Advantages

Supports other forms of communications.


Disadvantages

Misinterpretation

SIGN LANGUAGE
Form

of manual communication.
commonly in deaf communities.

Develops Differs

from region to region and culture to culture. commonly understood signs..

Some

SPATIAL RELATIONSHIP
Describes

the set measureable distances

between people when they interact.


Personal Social

distance - 1.5 feet to 4 feet

distance 5 feet to 12 feet

Public

distance 12 feet to 25 + feet

KINESICS

Study of Body movements. Most common form of non verbal communication.

Includes gestures, hand movements, eye contact,


body posture.

Coupled with verbal communication it is most


effective.

BODY LANGUAGE
You

communicate numerous messages by the

way you talk and move.


Consciously

and/or unconsciously we spell out

the reality.
What

various postures mean

FORMAL FLOW OF COMMUNICATION


Senior management

Middle management
Employees

FLOW OF COMMUNICATION
Board of directors

Finance

Marketing

Production

Finance Officers

Marketing Assistants

Factory Operatives

DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION

To give instructions Sharing Information Feedback on performance of employees Promotes authoritative atmosphere Generally through oral and written communication

Lack of importance given to the receiver

UPWARD COMMUNICATION

Communication with superiors Solutions please Clarifications please

Time is important. Be precise Dont assume Appointment and Agenda Information seeking

LATERAL COMMUNICATION
Across

the chain of command


better relations

Develops

Share
Give

information

feedback informal

Generally

CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION
Channels

between departments or functions

involve lateral communication


Besides

formal channels, information also passes

through an organization informally.


Communication is

not complete until feedback

has been received.

GRAPEVINE

Characteristics
Informal, not controlled by management. Perceived by most employees as being more

believable and reliable than formal communications.


Largely used to serve the self-interests of those

who use it.

GRAPEVINE

Results from:
Desire for information about important situations

Ambiguous conditions
Conditions that cause anxiety

MEDIUM
Report Fax Telephone Memo Face to face Email Internet Notice board Video conference

Body language
Letters

FACTORS AFFECTING CHOICE OF MEDIUM


Need

for record.
of the information flow.

Direction Reach.

Confidentiality.

Nature of
Cost

Information.

of the medium.

COMMUNICATION FAILURE
Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799 was about to release 1200 Turks captured at Jaffa, when he was seized by a fit of cough, and he uttered.. Ma sacrez tons (massacre all of them) instead of.. Ma sacre tonx (my confounded cough) 1200 prisoners were executed.

CHALLENGES TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION


What

you want to say What you really say What the other person hears. What the other person understands. What the other person says about what you said. What you think the other person said about you.

Change your tone and you change your meaning!


Why dont I take you to dinner tonight? Why dont I take you to dinner tonight? Why dont I take you to dinner tonight? Why dont I take you to dinner tonight? Why dont I take you to dinner tonight? Why dont I take you to dinner tonight? Why dont I take you to dinner tonight? I was going to take someone else.

BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION

Filtering Perception Attitude Language

Semantics Empathy Pre conceived notions

Emotional mood Attention span Environment Awareness

COMMUNICATION BARRIERS BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN


Men talk to:
and independence.
Complain that women

Women talk to:


Establish connection and intimacy.

Emphasize status, power,

talk on and on.


Offer solutions. To boast about their

Criticize men for not listening.


Speak of problems to promote closeness. Express regret and restore balance to a conversation.

accomplishments.

COMPUTER-AIDED COMMUNICATION

E-mail Advantages: quickly written, sent, and stored; low cost for distribution. Disadvantages: information overload, lack of emotional content, cold and impersonal.
Instant messaging Advantage: real time e-mail transmitted straight to the receivers desktop. Disadvantage: can be intrusive and distracting.

COMPUTER-AIDED COMMUNICATION
Intranet A private organization-wide information network.

Extranet An information network connecting employees with external suppliers, customers, and strategic partners.

Videoconferencing An extension of an intranet or extranet that permits face-to-face virtual meetings via video links.

RELEVANCE
According

to a study, about 70% of all new change programmes fail. internal communication is the main cause.

Poor

Organizations claim

our employees are our greatest assetemployees scoff at these claims.

IMPORTANCE OF INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION


Task

coordination
Solving Sharing

Problem

Information

Conflict

Resolution