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MOTIVATION

Dr. Samta Jain

MOTIVATION .
In psychological terms, motivation is a temporal or a dynamic state which is categorized by initiation, intensity, direction and persistence.
Initiation- the attempt to try
Intensity- how hard a person tries Direction- how does the person tries Persistence- how long a person tries

MOTIVATION

Motivation can also be defined as a condition that is initiated by a physiological or psychological deficiency or need in an individual which drives the individual to behave in a certain manner in order to achieve a particular goal or incentive.

The processes that account for an individuals intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.
Key Elements 1. Intensity: how hard a person tries 2. Direction: toward beneficial goal

3. Persistence: how long a person tries

NEED
(to feel jolly)

DRIVE
(recalling happy moments)

INCENTIVE
(smile)

THIRTY-3

Pen down your three SOURCES OF MOTIVATION in just thirty seconds.

MOTIVATION AND PRODUCTIVITY

Jobs with skill variety, task identity, task significance, Autonomy, and for which feedback of results is given, directly affect three psychological states of employees:
Knowledge

of results of work

Meaningfulness Personal

feelings of responsibility for results

MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES IN PRODUCTIVITY

Recognize individual differences. Use goals and feedback. Allow employees to participate in

decisions that affect them.


Link rewards to performance.

FISH

KITE

RABBIT

ARTISTIC CREATIVE EXPRESSIVE IMAGINATIVE INNOVATIVE INTUITIVE

ADVENTUROUS AMBITIOUS CONFIDENT DETERMINED DYNAMIC INDEPENDENT

FORGIVING FRIENDLY GENTLE GENEROUS HELPFUL KIND

CLASSIFICATION OF MOTIVES

1. PRIMARY MOTIVES
2. GENERAL MOTIVES 3. SECONDARY MOTIVES

PRIMARY MOTIVES
COMMON PRIMARY

It is not learned and is physiologically based.

MOTIVES: Thirst
Hunger

Sleep

They induce an individual to reduce the tension within him/her.

Sex Avoidance of pain Maternal concern

GENERAL MOTIVES
It is not learned ,but is also not based on physiological needs
.

COMMON GENERAL MOTIVES:

Neither purely primary nor purely secondary rather in between both. Known as stimulus motives

Curiosity Manipulation Motive to remain active Display affection

SECONDARY MOTIVES
It is a learned and acquired over time.
COMMON
SECONDARY

MOTIVES:
Power

Play a very important role in understanding organizational behavior in a complex and economically advanced society.

Achievement Affiliation Security

Status

ACHIVEMENT MOTIVE
Profile of a typical achiever:
Moderate degree of risk taking

Need for prompt and precise feedback


Satisfaction with accomplishment than with material rewards Total dedication toward the task

The Hierarchy of Needs


Developed in the 1940s by psychologist Abraham Maslow who believed: People have an innate desire to satisfy a given set of needs. These needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance, with the most basic needs at the foundation of the hierarchy. Each need level must be satisfied before the level above it becomes important. Escalation up the hierarchy continues until the self-actualization needs become the primary motivators.

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PHYSIOLOGICAL (food, sex, and air)

Adequate wages, ventilation, and comfortable temperatures and working conditions are measures taken to satisfy this most basic level of need.

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SECURITY (Safety and Security)


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Security needs can be satisfied by job continuity, a fair grievance system, and an adequate insurance and retirement system

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BELONGINGNESS (love, affection, and acceptance)


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Managers can help satisfy these needs by fostering a sense of group identity and interaction among employees

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ESTEEM NEEDS
.

Encompass needs for a positive self-image, self-respect, and respect by others. These needs are met partially by job titles, choice offices, merit pay increases, awards, and other forms of recognition

SELF ACTUALIZATION NEEDS

Achieved when people meet their full potential. These intrinsic needs are the hardest to understand or assess and the most difficult to satisfy.

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Herzbergs Motivator-Hygiene Theory


Every worker has two sets of needs or requirements: Motivator needs and Hygiene needs.
Motivator needs are associated with the actual work itself and how challenging it is.
Facets: interesting work, autonomy, responsibility

Hygiene needs are associated with the physical and psychological context in which the work is performed.
Facets: physical working conditions, pay, security

MOTIVATOR FACTORS

Motivators
Tap needs for psychological growth

Recognition Responsibility Achievement Growth and learning

Job content: The work itself

Lead to high levels of employee motivation and satisfaction

Hygiene Factors
Work environment & target basic needs Range from dissatisfaction to no dissatisfaction
The presence of hygiene cannot lead to satisfaction or high levels of motivation Perception that hygiene is an entitlement

Salary Can it ever be enough? Benefits Health care costs, premium sharing Company policy & administration Work conditions Office space, equipment, etc.

Hygiene factors affect job dissatisfaction

Motivator factors affect job satisfaction

Quality of supervision Pay Company policies Physical working conditions Relations with others

Opportunities for personal growth Recognition Responsibility Achievement

High

Job Dissatisfaction
.

Job Satisfaction

High
.

ERG Theory: Existence, Relatedness, and Growth

Represents Alderfers extension and refinement of Maslows need hierarchy theory. Existence needs are basic to human survival. Relatedness needs encompass the need to relate to others. Growth needs are related to self-esteem and actualization. The ERG theory suggests that a person frustrated in trying to satisfy one set of needs will regress back to the level of a previously satisfied set of needs.

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Alderfer's Hierarchy of Motivational Needs


Level of Need Definition Impel a person to make creative or productive effects on himself and his environment Properties Satisfied through using capabilities in engaging problems; creates a greater sense of wholeness and fullness as a human being

Growth

Relatedness

Involve relationships with significant others

Satisfied by mutually sharing thoughts and feelings; acceptance, confirmation, under- standing, and influence are elements
When divided among people one person's gain is another's loss if resources are limited
.

Existence

Includes all of the various forms of material and psychological desires


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The ERG Theory

Alderfers ERG Theory A Content Perspective


Satisfaction-Progression Frustration-Regression

Growth Needs

Relatedness Needs

Existence Needs

Vrooms Expectancy Theory of Motivation

Cognitive concepts proposed by psychologists, Kurt Lewin and Edward Tolman. Choice behavior and utility concepts from classical economic theory.

Diagrammatic representation
Person Possessing Preference Among Various Outcomes Goals and Associated Outcomes (Direct and Correlated) Action Outcome 1 Outcome 1 a Outcome 1b Outcome 1c Outcome 1d

Motivational Force = walence*Expectancy

Accompanied by perceived probabilities of various actions leading to Different outcomes

Feedback (Modification of preferences) Net Valence or Values of all outcomes (Satisfaction Dissatisfaction) * Walence = Valence x Instrumentality

Variables
Valence (V)

It denotes the strength of an individuals preference for a particular outcome.

Instrumentality (I)

It refers to the degree to which a first-level outcome would help in attaining the desired second-level outcome.
Expectancy (E)

It is the probability (ranging from 0 to 1) that performing a specific action would produce a particular first-level outcome or effort.

Vrooms VIE Expectancy Theory


EFFORT PERFORMANCE M O T I V A T I O N

OUTCOME

RELATIONSHIPS
Effort-performance relationship:

Performance-reward relationship: Rewards-personal goals relationship:

QUESTIONS??

If the employee puts in his/her maximum effort, will it have a strong positive impact on his/her performance appraisal? Does he/she believe that obtaining a good performance appraisal will result in organizational rewards? If the employee is rewarded, are these rewards personally attractive to the employee?

Porter Lawler Model

Porter Lawler model explains complex relationship between motivation, satisfaction and performance, and points out that effort put in by employee did not directly result in performance.

Porter Lawler Model


Performance Of Employee
Desire to performance Abilities and skills Perception of role & Knowledge of job

Porter Lawler Model


Variables Relationship Chart
Abilities & Traits Perceived Equitable Reward

Value of Reward

Intrinsic Reward

Effort

Performance Satisfaction

Perceived Effort Reward Probability

Role Perception

Extrinsic Reward

MBO: Management by Objectives


Emphasizes participatively set goals that are tangible, verifiable and

measurable. Using goals to motivate people rather than to control them. MBO: A program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for a explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress. MBO replaces imposed goals with participatively determined goals. Specific hard goals result in higher levels of performance than do no goals at all or the generalized do your best; and feedback on ones performance leads to higher performance.

4/28/2012

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