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Individual Differences
Thanks to a vast array of individual differences, modern organizations have a rich and interesting human texture. - Individual differences make the managers job endlessly challenging Self Concept: The I & Me in OB - Self is the core of ones conscious existence. - Awareness of self is is referred to as ones self-concept - It is the concept the individual has of him/herself as a physical, social, spiritual or moral being - Because you have a self-concept you recognize yourself as a distinct human - A self-concept will be impossible without the capacity to think

Individual Differences
Cognitions: Represent any knowledge, opinion, or beliefs of the environment, about oneself, or about ones behaviour American culture: large public self: prides self as open, honest, candid and to the point Japanese culture: Culturally discourage self-disclosure, typically view Americans as blunt, prying, and insensitive to formalities Americans see Japanese as distant, cold and evasive No culture are right or wrong, they are just different Self-Esteem:A belief about ones own self-worth based on overall self evaluation Self-Efficacy: Those who are confident of their ability tend to succeed, while those who are preoccupied with failing tend to fail.

A persons general style of interacting with the world People differ from one another in ways that are relatively consistent over time and place

Personality Definition
Individuals have their own way of thinking and acting, their own unique style and personality. The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment Allport, 1937 The sum total of the ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others. The individuals personality is made up of heredity, environment and moderated by the environment Your personality type is determined by preferred way of relating to others and to the world how you focus your attention, acquire information, make decisions, and orient yourself towards the outside world

Determinants of Personality

Personality Determinants Personality Determinants

Heredity Heredity Environment Environment Situation Situation

Characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting.
Four major perspectives on Personality Psychoanalytic - unconscious motivations Trait - specific dimensions of personality Humanistic - inner capacity for growth Social-Cognitive - influence of environment

Psychoanalytic Approach
Developed by Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis is both an approach to therapy and a theory of personality Emphasizes unconscious motivation the main causes of behavior lie buried in the unconscious mind

Psychoanalytic Approach
Rational, planful, mediating dimension of personality

Ego Superego


Information in your immediate awareness


Moralistic, judgmental, perfectionist dimension of personality

Unconscious Id

Information which can easily be made conscious

Irrational, illogical, impulsive dimension of personality

Thoughts, feelings, urges, and other information that is difficult to bring to conscious awareness

Psychoanalytic Approach
Conscious - all things we are aware of at any given moment
Ego Superego Conscious


Unconscious Id

Psychoanalytic Approach
Preconscious everything that can, with a little effort, be brought into consciousness
Ego Superego Conscious Preconscious

Unconscious Id

Psychoanalytic Approach
Unconscious inaccessible warehouse of anxietyproducing thoughts and drives
Ego Superego Conscious


Unconscious Id

Psychoanalytic Divisions of the Mind

Id - instinctual drives present at birth
does not distinguish between reality and fantasy operates according to the pleasure principle

Ego - develops out of the id in infancy

understands reality and logic mediator between id and superego Reality principle

internalization of societys moral standards responsible for guilt Morality principle

Defense Mechanisms
Unconscious mental processes employed by the ego to reduce anxiety

Defense Mechanisms
Repression - keeping anxietyproducing thoughts out of the conscious mind Reaction formation - replacing an unacceptable wish with its opposite

Defense Mechanisms
Displacement - when a drive directed to one activity by the id is redirected to a more acceptable activity by the ego Sublimation - displacement to activities that are valued by society

Defense Mechanisms
Projection - reducing anxiety by attributing unacceptable impulses to someone else Rationalization - reasoning away anxiety-producing thoughts Regression - retreating to a mode of behavior characteristic of an earlier stage of development

Personality Traits Enduring characteristics that describe an individuals behavior.

The First Trait Theory

Moody Anxious Rigid Sober Pessimistic Reserved Unsociable Quiet



Touchy Restless Aggressive Excitable Changeable Impulsive Optimistic Active choleric

Two Factor Trait Theory of Personality



phlegmatic sanguine Passive Sociable Careful Outgoing Thoughtful Talkative Peaceful Responsive Controlled Easygoing Reliable Lively Carefree Even-tempered Leadership Calm


Personality Traits
Trait personality theories suggest that a person can be described on the basis of some number of personality traits
Allport identified some 4,500 traits Cattel used factor analysis to identify 30-35 basic traits Eysenck argued there are 3 distinct traits in personality

Extraversion/introversion Neuroticism Psychotocism


Overview of the Big 5

Evaluating Trait Theory

Trait theory, especially the Big 5 model, is able to describe personality
Cross-cultural human studies find good agreement for

the Big 5 model in many cultures Appear to be highly correlated not only in adulthood, but also in childhood and even late preschoolers Three dimensions (extraversion, neuroticism and agreeableness) have cross-species generality

Problems with trait theory include:

Lack of explanation as to WHY traits develop Issue of explaining transient versus long-lasting traits

Personality Types
Type A

haste, restlessness, impatience, feelings of being time pressured, strong needs for achievement and dominance

Type B
Mellow or laid-back

Assessing the Unconscious-Rorscharch

Used to identify peoples inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots

Assessing the Unconscious--TAT

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) people express their inner motives through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes

Personality Attributes affecting OB

Locus of control: Internals and Externals Machiavellianism: Pragmatism, emotional distance, believes ends justify the means Self-esteem: Degree individual like or dislike themselves Self-monitoring: Individuals ability to adjust behaviour to external situations Risk taking: Willingness to take chances Type A and B personality: Type A: Impatient; hectic pace; cant cope with leisure; obsessed with numbers; measuring Type B: No sense of urgency; play for fun and relaxation; relax without guilt

Locus of Control
Locus of Control The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate. Internals
Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them.

Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.

Degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance & believes that ends justifies the means High Machs manipulate more, win more, are persuaded less & persuade others more Flourish when
Interact face-to-face rather than indirect When situation has minimum rules &

regulations, thus allowing latitude for improvisation Emotional involvement with detials irrelevant to winning distracts low Machs

Self-Esteem and Self-Monitoring

Self-Esteem (SE) Individuals degree of liking or disliking themselves.

Self-Monitoring A personality trait that measures an individuals ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors.

High Risk-taking Managers
Make quicker decisions Use less information to make decisions Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial


Low Risk-taking Managers

Are slower to make decisions Require more information before making

decisions Exist in larger organizations with stable environments

Personality Types
Type As 1. are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly; 2. feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place; 3. strive to think or do two or more things at once; 4. cannot cope with leisure time; 5. are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. Type Bs 1. never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience; 2. feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments; 3. play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost; 4. can relax without guilt.

The Big Five Model

Extraversion: outgoing, talkative, sociable, assertive Agreeableness: Trusting, good natured, cooperative, soft hearted Conscientiousness: Dependable, responsible, achievement oriented, persistent Emotional stability: Relaxed, secure, unworried Openness to experience: Intellectual, imaginative, curious, broadminded

Myers Briggs Typologies (MBTI)

Measures personality types and preferences Helps identify differences in ways in which individuals perceive and judge the world around them: - Perceive: Obtain awareness of a situation and factors involved in it - Judging: Deciding what to do about it - The instrument does not measure intelligence and abilities

Ways of Perceiving: Sensing

Form perception through senses Perception based on perceived realities, facts Realistic and practical May not perceive creative solutions Prefer standardized approach, dislike change Precise, methodical, steady, check facts

Ways of Perceiving: Intuition

Use feelings, possibilities, and haunches as primary means to form opinions about what exists and what might be done about it. Value imagination and inspiration Generate new problem solving approaches; envision new possibilities, new ideas and ways of doing things May like idea without checking for practicality Routines are disliked; concerned with possibilities in a situation than details of practical application Dont mind complication as long as it is new and different We use both ways of perceiving but tend to favour one or other

Deciding: Thinking
Think about issues; predict logical effect. Objective and analytical, weigh positive and negative facts. May ignore human considerations; not comfortable in sharing feelings. Have sense of justice and fairness. Able to censure and punish others.

Deciding: Feeling
Trust feelings; more concerned with personal values than logic Sympathetic and good at working with people. High value on harmonious relationships Too influenced by own or others preferences

Directed outwards to external people Like work involving interaction with people Result oriented; likes quick results Impatient with things that slow them down Enjoy communicating with people

Focused inwards on personal phenomena Prefer work for individualized thinking Like to concentrate on ideas and detail Ideas more important than results Not people oriented; difficult to communicate with others

Merely perceive Spontaneous, adaptable attitude to life Not committed to one way of doing things: - Difficult to make decisions & prioritize - Postpone, not finish Like to learn new things about people Need all facts before deciding

Evaluate and judge information about life They are planners, organizers and regulators Like to plan ahead and make decisions Like to see results without delay Forge ahead in a project For quick decisions may not collect data

Perceiving & Deciding

Four combinations each resulting in a different type of individual These differences affect:
- The ways in which people interact - The type of work suited for - How well they function in certain situations

One goal of MBTI is to find out what type of work are best suited to ones preferred ways of perceiving and deciding

Perceiving & Deciding

a) Sensing & Thinking (ST):

Trusts facts whatever can be perceived by the sense and verified Make impersonal, thinking decisions based on analysis of the facts, logically reasoning in terms of cause and effect

b) Sensing & Feeling (SF):


Interested in facts but base their final judgments on their feelings and on how much something matters to them or to others

Perceiving & Deciding

c) Intuition & feeling (NF):

Make decisions on personal feelings Not interested in facts but possibilities, new concepts and new plans Interested in potential of people

d) Intuition & Thinking (NT):

Interested in possibilities but make judgments based on logical analysis Interested in exploring theoretical or technical ideas Not interested in the feelings of others

Perceiving & Deciding

People tend to use two of the four functions, favoring one and using the second as a complementary process. Need to use both ways of perceiving and deciding. The skill can be developed Once people know their preferred style they can consciously practice the other styles, to expand capabilities and possibilities. For example:
Sensing: best for obtaining an impartial, accurate impression of a situation, reality Intuition: best way to unearth the possibilities in a situation Thinking: preferred when an impersonal, objective, logical analysis is reqd. Includes assessing probabilities & outcomes Feeling: useful in deciding what something really means to oneself and others, or what the emotional cost will be.

Person Job Fit

Fit between an individuals personality characteristics and his/her occupational environment. Hollands six personality types: - Realistic: Physical activities requiring skill, strength and coordination - Investigative: Activities involving thinking, organizing and understanding - Social: involving helping and developing others - Conventional: Rule related, orderly and unambiguous - Enterprising: Verbal activities with opportunities to influence others and attain power - Artistic: Prefers ambiguous and unsystematic activities that allow creative expressions

Hollands Typology of Personality and Congruent Occupations

Shaping Personality
We are constantly playing different roles, in different situations and with different people Sometimes situations shape our role we step into different costumes to take on different roles Occasions when there is an uncertain fit between who we are or expect to be and the role required Changes mean we need to act in a new way, perhaps change your image and bring out a hidden side of you. You need to make a personality change to alter the way you act or are, to fit better or get along with others We are quite plastic and can adapt ourselves to behave differently

Shaping Personality
Possible to make a 180 degree change in our personality:
- Need to determine personality traits that no longer work and

figure out what qualities we need to adopt to become successful - Practice the new traits

Another way to create change in your personality:

Be aware of the trait you are using, control it and use a more appropriate one

4 steps to changing your personality:

- Determine how you want to change --- what or who you want to

become - Create a mental script --- imagine yourself in the new role - Practice your mental script to reinforce your new image of yourself - Play out your mental script in life.

Check out what aspect of your personality you do not like and imaging the opposite

Mental Scripting
In mental scripting you create a detailed scenario in which you mentally play out a desired role again and again until you create a habit or a pattern of action - As you repeatedly experience the action mentally, you reinforce the pattern in your mind - This, in turn, makes you feel more and more certain you can play the role, and the confidence carries over into playing the scene in every day life Once you have created a mental script, practice applying it in the real world - Practice it a few minutes every day, until you feel really that new trait becomes part of you.