UNIT IX: GENETIC ENGINEERING

Mari – Mupas 2nd year Section C Group 4
Mari, Sheryll Anne C.

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OBJECTIVES
1. understand key terms and concepts related to the science of genetic engineering  2. discover ethical issues surrounding the practice of genetic engineering in reproductive medicine

Mari, Sheryll Anne C.

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TOPICS OF DISCUSSION
 Ethical

Principles  Therapeutic Genetics and the Human Genome Project  Cloning  Prenatal and Genetic Testing and Counseling  Adult and Stem Cell Research and Therapy  Virtues of a Catholic Health Care Giver

Mari, Sheryll Anne C.

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CATECHISM OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH (2292)
“scientific, medical or psychological experiments on human individuals or groups can contribute to healing the sick and the advancement of public health. Research or experimentation on the human being cannot legitimate acts that are in themselves contrary to the dignity of persons.”

Mari, Sheryll Anne C.

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INTRODUCTION

“And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, [it was] very good..”
GENESIS 1:31

Mari, Sheryll Anne C.

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GENETIC ENGINEERING
 the

artificial modification of the genetic code of a living organism.  Genes from one organism are inserted in another organism, most often across natural species boundaries.  The scientific alteration of genes or genetic material to produce desirable new traits in organisms or to eliminate undesirable ones

Mari, Sheryll Anne C.

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GENETIC ENGINEERING
Makes use of the techniques of molecular cloning and transformation  technology that allows one :
  to

identify genes,  to isolate them from the chromosomes, and  to splice them into other chromosomes of beings of the same or different species.

Mari, Sheryll Anne C.

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TO ELIMINATE ACTUAL OR POTENTIAL DISEASE OR TO IMPROVE THE HUMAN GENOTYPE:
3 DIFFERENT WAYS:  Splicing into human cells a healthy gene to displace a defective gene  Administering pharmaceuticals containing altered cells  Stifling harmful genes by interfering with their protein production
Mari, Sheryll Anne C.

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POPE JOHN PAUL II, DANGERS OF GENETIC MANIPULATION
“A strictly therapeutic intervention whose explicit objective is the healing of various maladies such as those stemming from deficiencies of chromosomes will, in principle, be considered desirable, provided it is directed to the true promotion of the personal well-being of man and does not infringe on his integrity or worsen his conditions of life. Such an intervention, indeed, would fall within the logic of the Christian moral tradition,”

Mari, Sheryll Anne C.

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POPE JOHN PAUL II, DANGERS OF GENETIC MANIPULATION

“Each human person, in his absolutely unique singularity, is constituted not only by his spirit, but by his body as well.”

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POPE JOHN PAUL II, DANGERS OF GENETIC MANIPULATION
“respect the fundamental dignity of men and the common biological nature which is at the base of liberty, avoiding manipulations that tend to modify genetic inheritance and to create groups of different men at the risk of causing new cases of marginalization in society.”

Mari, Sheryll Anne C.

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POPE JOHN PAUL II, DANGERS OF GENETIC MANIPULATION
“Genetic manipulation becomes arbitrary and unjust when it reduces life to an object, when it forgets that it is dealing with a human subject, capable of intelligence and freedom, worthy of respect whatever may be their limitations; or when it treats this person in terms of criteria not founded on the integral reality of the human person, at the risk of infringing upon his dignity. In this case, it exposes the individual to the caprice of others, thus depriving him of his autonomy.”
Mari, Sheryll Anne C.

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ETHICAL CONCERNS
Jacqueline T. Mupas

ETHICAL CONCERNS
Sanctity

of human life Protection of human dignity Acceptance of social responsibilities Safekeeping of God’s creation

SANCTITY OF HUMAN LIFE
 If

genetic determinism reduces the meaning of humanhood to the mechanistic out workings of molecular biology, there is serious potential for devaluing human life

SANCTITY OF HUMAN LIFE

New capacities for prenatal genetic testing, including the examination of human preembryos prior to implantation, generate questions about the value of human life when it is genetically defective
 How

serious must a genetic defect, prenatally diagnosed, be before it is an ethically legitimate reason for discarding a pre-embryo or for inducing an abortion?

SANCTITY OF HUMAN LIFE

Some conditions, such as trisomy 18, are generally deemed incompatible with life But the relative seriousness of most genetic defects is a matter of judgement

PROTECTION OF HUMAN DIGNITY

Protection of personal privacy and confidentiality Knowledge about a person’s genetic profile could be of significant value to potential employers, insurance companies, and to those related to the person Whether genetic testing should be voluntary or mandatory, when and whom the testing should be done, how much and with whom the resulting information should be shared are matters of significant ethical concern

PROTECTION OF HUMAN DIGNITY

At stake is the protection of persons from stigma and unfair discrimination on the basis of their genetic makeup

PROTECTION OF HUMAN DIGNITY

Possibility of intentionally altering the human gene pool Medically interventions for genetic diseases may be aimed either at the treatment of bodily cells that are genetically defective or at the alteration of reproductive cells Changes in human reproductive cells could become a permanent part of the human gene pool

PROTECTION OF HUMAN DIGNITY

Interventions may also extend beyond the treatment of disease and include attempts to enhance what have formerly been considered normal human characteristics What are the implications for the meaning of being human, for example, if interventions aimed at enhancing human intelligence or physique become available?

ACCEPTANCE OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES
Ethics of social policies  Boundaries between individual liberties and social responsibilities
 

Should society develop policies designed to encourage either positive or negative eugenics? Should individuals with serious genetic disorders be given full procreative liberty?

ACCEPTANCE OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES

Use of society’s resources Amount of social resources that should be spent for interventions in human genetics when more basic health care is not fully available Distribution of the benefits and burdens of genetic interventions and how they will be shared by rich and poor within society

STEWARDSHIP OF GOD’S CREATION

Many changes could be made in various species that inhabit the earth These changes have the potential for being both permanent and unpredictable

What limits to genetic change, if any, should be accepted?  Are there boundaries that should not be crossed in transferring genes from one life form to another?

CHRISTIAN PRINCIPLES FOR GENETIC INTERVENTIONS

Jacqueline T. Mupas

CONFIDENTIALITY

Christian love requires that trust be maintained in human relationships In order to safeguard personal privacy and protect against unfair discrimination, information about a person’s genetic constitution should be kept confidential unless the person elects to share the knowledge with others

CONFIDENTIALITY

TRUTHFULNESS

The Christian obligation to be truthful requires that the results of genetic testing be honestly reported to the person tested or to responsible family members if the person is incapable of understanding the information (Eph. 4:25)

HONORING GOD’S IMAGE
In all of God’s creation, only human beings were created in the image of God (Gen 1:2627)  The Christian acknowledgement of God’s wisdom and power in creation should lead to caution in attempts to alter permanently the human gene pool (Gen 1:31)  LIMIT: treatment of individuals with genetic disorders (somatic cell therapies)  NOT INCLUDE: change human reproductive cells (germ cell alterations)

HONORING GOD’S IMAGE

All interventions in human beings for genetic reasons should be taken with great moral caution and with appropriate protection of human life at all stages of its development

STEWARDSHIP OF CREATION

Safeguarding of God’s creation includes esteem for the diversity and ecological balance of the natural world with its countless species of living creatures (Gen 1) Genetic interventions with plants and animals should show respect for the rich variety of life forms Exploitations and manipulations that would destroy natural balance or degrade God’s created world should be prohibited

NONVIOLENCE
Using genetic manipulation to develop means of warfare is a direct affront to Christian values of peace and life  It is morally unacceptable to abuse God’s creation by changing life forms into weapons of destruction (Rev. 11:18)

FAIRNESS
God loves all human beings, regardless of their perceived social status (Acts 10:34)  The benefits of genetic research should be accessible to people in need without unfair discrimination

HUMAN DIGNITY
Created in God’s image, human beings are more than the sum of their genes (Gen. 1:27; Acts 17:28)  Should not be reduced to genetic mechanisms  People should be treated with dignity and respect of their individual qualities, and not be stereotyped on the basis of their genetic heritage

GENE THERAPY

GENE THERAPY

insertion of genes into an individual's cells and tissues to treat a disease, and hereditary diseases in which a defective mutant allele is replaced with a functional one

GENE THERAPY USING AN ADENOVIRUS VECTOR

FIRST APPROVED GENE THERAPY
  

 

On September 14, 1990 U.S. National Institutes of Health W. French Anderson, M.D., and his colleagues R. Michael Blaese, M.D., C. Bouzaid, M.D., and Kenneth Culver, M.D on four-year old Ashanthi DeSilva. Born with a rare genetic disease called severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) she lacked a healthy immune system, and was vulnerable to every passing germ or infection. avoids contact with people outside her family, remaining in the sterile environment of her home, and battling frequent illnesses with massive amounts of antibiotics.

FIRST APPROVED GENE THERAPY
     

doctors removed white blood cells from the child's body let the cells grow in the lab inserted the missing gene into the cells and then infused the genetically modified blood cells back into the patient's bloodstream. the therapy strengthened Ashanthi's immune system by 40% she no longer has recurrent colds, she has been allowed to attend school, and she was immunized against whooping cough. This procedure was not a cure; the white blood cells treated genetically only work for a few months, after which the process must be repeated (VII, Thompson [First] 1993).

FIRST APPROVED GENE THERAPY
As of early 2007, she was still in good health, and she was attending college.  However, there is no consensus on what portion of her improvement should be attributed to gene therapy versus other treatments.  Some would state that the case is of great importance despite its indefinite results, if only because it demonstrated that gene therapy could be practically attempted without adverse consequences.

GENE THERAPY BASIC PROCESS
 

a "corrected" gene - inserted into the genome to replace an "abnormal," disease-causing gene Carrier called “vector”
 

viruses - genetically altered to carry normal human DNA Have evolved a way of encapsulating and delivering their genes to human cells in a pathogenic manner

 

Target cells - patient's liver or lung cells are infected with the vector The vector then unloads its genetic material containing the therapeutic human gene into the target cell. The generation of a functional protein product from the therapeutic gene restores the target cell to a normal state.

TYPES OF GENE THERAPY
 Germ

line gene therapy cell gene therapy

 Somatic

GERM LINE GENE THERAPY
germ cells, i.e., sperms or eggs, are modified by the introduction of functional genes, which are ordinarily integrated into their genomes  the change due to therapy would be heritable and would be passed on to later generations.  This approach, theoretically, should be highly effective in counteracting genetic disorders.  However, this option is prohibited for application in human beings, at least for the present, for a variety of technical and ethical reasons.

SOMATIC CELL GENE THERAPY
the gene is introduced only in somatic cells, especially of these tissues in which expression of the concerned gene is critical for health.  Expression of the introduced gene relieves/ eliminates symptoms of the disorder, but this effect is not heritable as it does not involve the germ line.  At present, somatic cell therapy is the only feasible option, and clinical trials addressing a variety of conditions have already begun.

BROAD METHODS
A normal gene may be inserted into a nonspecific location within the genome to replace a nonfunctional gene. This approach is most common.  An abnormal gene could be swapped for a normal gene through homologous recombination.  The abnormal gene could be repaired through selective reverse mutation, which returns the gene to its normal function.  The regulation (the degree to which a gene is turned on or off) of a particular gene could be altered.

WHAT IS THE CURRENT STATUS OF GENE THERAPY RESEARCH?
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not yet approved any human gene therapy product for sale.  Current gene therapy is experimental and has not proven very successful in clinical trials.  Little progress has been made since the first gene therapy clinical trial began in 1990.

WHAT IS THE CURRENT STATUS OF GENE THERAPY RESEARCH?

In 1999, gene therapy suffered a major setback with the death of 18-year-old Jesse Gelsinger.
 Jesse

was participating in a gene therapy trial for ornithine transcarboxylase deficiency (OTCD).  He died from multiple organ failures 4 days after starting the treatment.  His death is believed to have been triggered by a severe immune response to the adenovirus carrier.

WHAT IS THE CURRENT STATUS OF GENE THERAPY RESEARCH?
January 2003 - the FDA placed a temporary halt on all gene therapy trials using retroviral vectors in blood stem cells.  FDA took this action after it learned that a second child treated in a French gene therapy trial had developed a leukemia-like condition.  Both this child and another who had developed a similar condition in August 2002 had been successfully treated by gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency disease (X-SCID), also known as "bubble baby syndrome."

WHAT IS THE CURRENT STATUS OF GENE THERAPY RESEARCH?

April of 2003 - the FDA eased the ban on gene therapy trials using retroviral vectors in blood stem cells

PROBLEMS
Gene Therapy

SHORT-LIVED NATURE OF GENE THERAPY

Before gene therapy can become a permanent cure for any condition, the therapeutic DNA introduced into target cells must remain functional and the cells containing the therapeutic DNA must be long-lived and stable Problems with integrating therapeutic DNA into the genome and the rapidly dividing nature of many cells prevent gene therapy from achieving any long-term benefits Patients will have to undergo multiple rounds of gene therapy

IMMUNE RESPONSE

Anytime a foreign object is introduced into human tissues, the immune system has evolved to attack the invader The risk of stimulating the immune system in a way that reduces gene therapy effectiveness is always a possibility. the immune system's enhanced response to invaders it has seen before makes it difficult for gene therapy to be repeated in patients.

PROBLEMS WITH VIRAL VECTORS

Viruses, while the carrier of choice in most gene therapy studies, present a variety of potential problems to the patient --toxicity, immune and inflammatory responses, and gene control and targeting issues there is always the fear that the viral vector, once inside the patient, may recover its ability to cause disease.

MULTIGENE DISORDERS

Conditions or disorders that arise from mutations in a single gene are the best candidates for gene therapy. Unfortunately, some of the most commonly occurring disorders, such as heart disease, high blood pressure, Alzheimer's disease, arthritis, and diabetes, are caused by the combined effects of variations in many genes. difficult to treat effectively using gene therapy

CHANCE OF INDUCING A TUMOR (INSERTIONAL MUTAGENESIS)

If the DNA is integrated in the wrong place in the genome, for example in a tumor suppressor gene, it could induce a tumor. occurred in clinical trials for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) patients, in which hematopoietic stem cells were transduced with a corrective transgene using a retrovirus, and this led to the development of T cell leukemia in 3 of 20 patients.

RELIGIOUS CONCERNS
humans were created in God's image,  alteration of an individual's genes is considered as tampering or corrupting God's work

HUMAN GENOME PROJECT

Mercado, Kriselle S.

HUMAN GENOME PROJECT
an international scientific research project.  Its primary goals are to determine the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up DNA and to identify the more than 20,000 genes of the human genome.

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HUMAN GENOME PROJECT
objective of the HGP is to understand the genetic makeup of the human species  nonhuman organisms such as Escherichia coli, the fruit fly, and the laboratory mouse.  It remains one of the largest investigational projects in modern science.

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APRIL 14, 2003 COMPLETION OF THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT

50 years after elucidation of the structure of DNA

“We’ve discovered the secret of life.”
Francis Crick 28 February 1953

DNA: DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID
Double

helix Made up of four kinds of bases:  A, T, G, C A always pairs with T G always pairs with C

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Cell Nucleus
Chromosome

DNA
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THE HUMAN GENOME
 Genome:

the totality of genetic information in an organism chromosomes (diploid content = 46) genes

 23

 ~30,000 ~

3 billion bases

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HISTORY OF THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT (HGP)
 The

US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Human Genome - National Laboratories of the DOE begin producing libraries of human chromosomes - DOE and US National Institutes of Health (NIH) sign a memorandum of understanding outlining their cooperative effort in genome research
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 1983

 1988

HISTORY OF THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT (HGP)
 1988

- HUGO (Human Genome Organization) founded by genome scientists - DOE and NIH establish a working group to study the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the HGP - DOE and NIH present a 5-year HGP plan to the US Congress. This marks the beginning of the 15-year project
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 1989

 1990

HISTORY OF THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT (HGP)

1998 - Celera Genomics and Incyte Pharmaceuticals (both private companies) announce plans to sequence the human genome before the public-funded HGP is completed 2000 - Craig Venter of Celera and Francis Collins of NIH (representing the HGP) jointly announce the completion of a “working draft” of the human genome 2001 – Publication of the Human Genome Sequence in the journals Nature and Science
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HISTORY OF THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT (HGP)
2003 - Ongoing sequencing led to the announcement of the essentially complete genome. It was 2 years earlier than planned.  May 2006, another milestone was passed on the way to completion of the project, when the sequence of the last chromosome was published in the journal Nature.

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GOALS OF HUMAN GENOME PROJECT
Identify all the genes in the human genome  Complete the sequence of 3 billion bases of the human genome  Store the human genome information in databases  Develop tools for analysis of the data

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WHOSE DNA WAS ACTUALLY SEQUENCED?

The HGP sequenced a composite genome from several different people The sequence was generated from 10 to 20 primary samples that were taken from many anonymous donors Donors belong to diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds

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INFORMATION DERIVED FROM THE HGP
size of human genome: 3.1647 billion base pairs (bp) number of human genes: ~30,000 genes vary in length and can cover thousands of bases
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avg. size: ~3,000 bp

INFORMATION DERIVED FROM THE HGP

less than 2% of the human genome codes for proteins almost all (99.9%) nucleotide bases are exactly the same in all people

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BENEFITS AND APPLICATIONS
Medical

benefits Microbial genome research DNA forensics Evolution and human migration Risk assessment
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BENEFITS OF HGP RESEARCH
MEDICAL BENEFITS
 improved

diagnosis of

disease
 earlier

detection of predispositions to disease drug design therapy and control systems for drugs “personal drugs”

 rational  gene

 pharmacogenomics  organ

replacement

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BENEFITS OF HGP RESEARCH MICROBIAL GENOME RESEARCH
environmental

monitoring protection from biological and chemical warfare safe, efficient toxic waste cleanup
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BENEFITS OF HGP RESEARCH
DNA FORENSICS
 identify

potential suspects at crime scenes  identify crime and catastrophe victims  establish paternity and other family relations  match organ donors with recipients in transplant programs

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BENEFITS OF HGP RESEARCH
EVOLUTION AND HUMAN MIGRATION
 Comparison

of sequences of genetically, racially and culturally diverse people  Comparison of sequences of people geographically apart but apparently related  Study of evolution of 76 humanoid species and modern humans

BENEFITS OF HGP RESEARCH
RISK ASSESSMENT

assess health damage and risks caused by exposure to:

mutagens  radiation  cancer -causing toxins  reduce the likelihood of heritable mutations

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PROJECT GOALS NOW
To identify the function of the human genome  To understand how and why genes can cause prevent disease  To speed up the use of genetic information in biomedical research and put it to work

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ETHICAL, LEGAL AND SOCIAL ISSUES (ELSI)

Privacy issues and fair use of genetic information

social implications and the ability of patients to give informed consent to increasingly complex and controversial procedures.  foundational principles of human dignity and the common good.

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ETHICAL, LEGAL AND SOCIAL ISSUES (ELSI)

The integration of genetic technologies into the clinical setting Issues surrounding research ethics The education of the public and of professionals alike

 

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CLONING

Mari, Sheryll Anne C.

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Cloning

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Mari, Sheryll Anne C.

CLONING

---PCBE

A form of reproduction in which offspring result  not from the chance union of egg and sperm (sexual reproduction)  but from the deliberate replication of the genetic makeup of another single individual (asexual reproduction).

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HUMAN CLONING
The asexual production of a new human organism that is, at all stages of development, genetically virtually identical to a currently existing or previously existing human being.  SCNT (Somatic Cell Nuclei Transfer)

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REPRODUCTIVE CLONING
 Termed

by the PCBE as “cloning-toproduce-children”  Production of a cloned human embryo, formed for the (proximate) purpose of initiating a pregnancy, with the (ultimate) goal of producing a child who will be genetically virtually identical to a currently existing or previously existing individual.

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REPRODUCTIVE CLONING
not truly an identical clone of the donor animal.  errors or incompleteness in the reprogramming process cause the high rates of death, deformity, and disability observed among animal clones.

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THERAPEUTIC CLONING
“Cloning-for-biomedical-research”  Production of a cloned human embryo, formed for the (proximate) purpose of using it in research or for extracting its stem cells, with the (ultimate) goals of gaining scientific knowledge of normal and abnormal development and of developing cures for human diseases

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THERAPEUTIC CLONING
 The

goal of this process is not to create cloned human beings, but rather to harvest stem cells that can be used to study human development and to treat disease  used in humans to produce whole organs from single cells or to produce healthy cells that can replace damaged cells in degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's.

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REPRODUCTIVE CLONING: +
 allows

infertile couples or others to have genetically-related children;  permits couples at risk of conceiving a child with a genetic disease to avoid having an afflicted child;  allows the bearing of a child who could become an ideal transplant donor for a particular patient in need;  enables a parent to keep a living connection with a dead or dying child or spouse; or enable individuals or society to try to “replicate” individuals of great talent or beauty.
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USES OF REPRODUCTIVE CLONING
If success rate is improved, it can be used to develop efficient ways to reliably reproduce animals with special qualities  used to repopulate endangered animals or animals that are difficult to breed.

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ETHICS ON REPRODUCTIVE CLONING
 safety

concerns and the likelihood of harm to those involved  The principles of freedom, equality, and human dignity  Problems of identity and individuality  Concerns regarding manufacture  The prospect of new eugenics  Troubled Family Relations  Effects on Society

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ETHICAL ASSESSMENT OF THERAPEUTIC CLONING
It involves deliberate production, use, and ultimate destruction of cloned human embryos  It exploits and destroys developing human life

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 Cloning

from adult animals was introduced to the public in 1997 when scientists announced the birth of Dolly, the first animal cloned in this way. real key to cloning an adult animal is the ability to reprogram the skin cell nucleus and cause it to begin developing as if it was a newly fertilized egg.

Mari, Sheryll Anne C.

 The

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5 BASIC STEPS
 Cloning

requires specialized microsurgery tools and involves five basic steps: 1. Enucleation of the recipient egg 2. Transfer of the donor cell into the recipient egg 3. Fusion of the donor cell to the recipient egg 4. Culturing the resulting cloned embryo in the incubator 5. Transferring the developing embryo into the reproductive tract of a surrogate mother
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PROCESS OF CLONING

M ari, She ryll Ann e C.

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SOMATIC CELL NUCLEI Isolation of a somatic cell TRANSFER
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Transfer of the nucleus

Freshly Fertilized Zygote

M Embryo Implanted into ari, a Surrogate Mother She ryll Ann e C.

FERTILIZATION VS. SCNT

the

sperm and egg both contain one set of chromosomes. When the sperm and egg join, the resulting zygote ends up with two sets - one from the father (sperm) and one from the mother (egg).

the egg cell's single set of chromosomes is removed. It is replaced by the nucleus from a somatic cell, which already contains two complete sets of chromosomes. Therefore, in the resulting embryo, both sets of chromosomes come from the somatic cell. 97

Mari, Sheryll Anne C.

ARTIFICIAL EMBRYO TWINNING

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the relatively low-tech version of cloning. As the name suggests, this technology mimics the natural process of creating identical twins.

M ari, She ryll Ann e C.

XENOTRANSPLANTATION

Another potential application of cloning to organ transplants is the creation of genetically modified pigs from which organs suitable for human transplants could be harvested .

Mari, Sheryll Anne C.

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RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY
important for learning about other related technologies, such as gene therapy, genetic engineering of organisms, and sequencing genomes.  used to treat certain genetic conditions by introducing virus vectors that carry corrected copies of faulty genes into the cells of a host organism.

Mari, Sheryll Anne C.

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RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY

Genes from different organisms that improve taste and nutritional value or provide resistance to particular types of disease can be used to genetically engineer food crops.

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RISKS OF CLONING
expensive and highly inefficient  More than 90% of cloning attempts fail to produce viable offspring  cloned animals tend to have more compromised immune function and higher rates of infection, tumor growth, and other disorders

Mari, Sheryll Anne C.

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RISKS OF CLONING
Many cloned animals have not lived long enough to generate good data about how clones age.  Problems also may result from programming errors in the genetic material from a donor cell.

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CLONING
In 1952, the first animal, a tadpole, was cloned.  Before the creation of Dolly, the first mammal cloned from the cell of an adult animal, clones were created from embryonic cells.  Hundreds of cloned animals exist today, but the number of different species is limited.

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DOLLY THE SHEEP

Dolly the sheep, the world's first cloned adult animal.
In February 14 2003, he was put to death by lethal injection due to arthritis Dolly was a mother to six lambs, bred the oldfashioned way.
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Mari, Sheryll Anne C.

SHOULD HUMANS BE CLONED?

Due to the inefficiency of animal cloning (only about 1 or 2 viable offspring for every 100 experiments) and the lack of understanding about reproductive cloning, many scientists and physicians strongly believe that it would be unethical to attempt to clone humans.

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Italian fertility specialist Severino Antinori speaks at a conference on human cloning in Rome on March 9 2001. The Italian medical authorities warned that Dr Antinori risked losing his right to practise in Italy because of his plans to clone human beings.
M ari, She ryll Ann e C.

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“REFLECTIONS ON CLONING”
June 25, 1997 Vatican
3) 4)

5)

Dignity of human procreation Dignity accorded to each person without discrimination Basic human relationships

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DIGNITY OF HUMAN PROCREATION
“It represents a radical manipulation of the constitutive relationality and complementarity which is at the origin of human procreation in both its biological and strictly personal aspects. It tends to make bisexuality a purely functional left-over, given that an ovum must be used without its nucleus in order to make room for the cloneembryo and requires, for now, a female womb so that its development may be brought to term”
Mari, Sheryll Anne C. ETHICAL PROBLEMS CONNECTED WITH HUMAN CLONING PONTIFICIA ACADEMIA PRO VITA REFLECTIONS ON CLONING

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DIGNITY OF HUMAN PROCREATION
“The illicitness of cloning is derived… …from the absence of a personal act of procreative love since it involves asexual, agamic reproduction and, in short, from the offence to the Creator's design”

Mari, Sheryll Anne C. ETHICAL PROBLEMS CONNECTED WITH HUMAN CLONING

PONTIFICIA ACADEMIA PRO VITA REFLECTIONS ON CLONING

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DIGNITY ACCORDED TO EACH PERSON WITHOUT DISCRIMINATION

“Human cloning must also be judged negative with regard to the dignity of the person cloned, who enters the world by virtue of being the "copy" (even if only a biological copy) of another being: this practice paves the way to the clone's radical suffering, for his psychic identity is jeopardized by the real or even by the merely virtual presence of his ‘other’.”

Mari, Sheryll Anne C. ETHICAL PROBLEMS CONNECTED WITH HUMAN CLONING

PONTIFICIA ACADEMIA PRO VITA REFLECTIONS ON CLONING

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DIGNITY ACCORDED TO EACH PERSON WITHOUT DISCRIMINATION
“The human body is an integral part of every individual's dignity and personal identity, and it is not permissible to use women as a source of ova for conducting cloning experiments.”

Mari, Sheryll Anne C. ETHICAL PROBLEMS CONNECTED WITH HUMAN CLONING

PONTIFICIA ACADEMIA PRO VITA REFLECTIONS ON CLONING

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BASIC HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS

“In the cloning process the basic relationships of the human person are perverted: filiation, consanguinity, kinship, parenthood.”

Mari, Sheryll Anne C. ETHICAL PROBLEMS CONNECTED WITH HUMAN CLONING

PONTIFICIA ACADEMIA PRO VITA REFLECTIONS ON CLONING

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"Values in a Time of Upheaval”
By: Pope Benedict XVI

“…the quiet wasting away of human dignity."

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“…more dangerous threat than weapons of mass destruction.”

M ari, She ryll Ann e C.

In 2005, the United Nations adopted the Declaration on Human Cloning which “prohibit[s] all forms of human cloning inasmuch as they are incompatible with human dignity and the protection of human life.”

Mari, Sheryll Anne C.

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