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EEE381B

Aerospace Systems &


Avionics
Navigation Systems
Ref: Moir & Seabridge, Chapter 8
Dr Ron Smith
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Outline
1. ntroduction
2. Radio navigation
3. nertial navigation
4. Satellite navigation
5. ntegrated navigation
6. nstrument landing system
7. n-class exercises
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1. ntroduction
Objectives of navigation:
Know your position
Efficient use of fuel
Maintain a flight schedule
Avoid other air traffic
Avoid ground-to-air missiles and
anti-aircraft artillery (known sites)
Minimize exposure to enemy
radar
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1.1 Main methods of navigation
Classic dead-reckoning using air data
(speed, altitude) and magnetic (bearing)
coupled with LORAN-C.
Radio navigation
nertial navigation
Satellite navigation
Combinations of the above (integrated)
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1.2 Principles of navigation
Basic navigation parameters:
Altitude (barometric or radar)
Speed in the X, Y and Z axes
ndicated air speed (AS), Mach number (M), and
true air speed (TAS)
Heading and track
Position in latitude and longitude
ay-points
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2. Radio navigation
Use of the classic dead-reckoning method of
navigation, based upon the parameters
presented in the previous diagram, is subject to
heading errors and en route wind affects that
lead to along-track and across-track errors.
Since the 1930's, radio beacons and navigation
aids have greatly improved navigation by
providing a fixed set of references points.
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2.1 Radio navigation
Radio navigation aids include:
VHF omnirange (VOR)
Distance-measuring equipment (DME)
Non-distance beacons (NDB)
Tactical air navigation (TACAN)
VORTAC (combined TACAN and VOR)
Long range navigation (LORAN-C)
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2.2 VHF omnirange (VOR)
Do not be confused by its name, VOR stations provide
bearing information relative to the aircraft position.
VOR stations operate in the 108-117.95 MHz band with
a channel spacing of 50 kHz or 100kHz.
Each station transmits its identification via a Morse code
modulated tone.
A reference 30 Hz signal is FM modulated onto the
carrier.
A secondary signal is sent by a directed (cardioid)
antenna that spins at 30 rev/sec.
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2.2.1 VOR bearing
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2.2.2 Aeronautical chart VOR
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2.3 Distance measurement equipment
(DME)
Provides the distance from the station
by measuring the time difference
between the interrogation pulses and
the response.
Often installed near VOR stations so
as to provide combined bearing and
distance.
~80 VOR/DME stations in Canada.
I0.5 nm
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2.4 Non-distance beacons (NDB)
The signal only includes bearing information.
On board automatic direction finding equipment
is required to get the bearing.
This same equipment can be used to find distress
locator beacons.
The most widely spread beacons in use today.
More than 500 in service in Canada alone.
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2.5 Tactical air navigation (TACAN)
A navigation system used by
military aircraft.
Operates on UHF channels
between 960-1215 MHz.
More precise than VOR/DME.
I1% azimuth; I0.1nm
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2.6 Combined VOR / TACAN (VORTAC)
Provides interoperability between civil and
military aircraft.
Especially useful for large military aircraft that
frequently fly civil aviation routes.
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2.7 Radio navigation use
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2.8 Radio navigation limitations
For oceanic crossings, or other routes where
VOR is not available, Doppler radar is used.
This can provide dead-reckoning position by
measuring the aircraft speed with respect to the
ground.
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2.8.1 LORAN- C
A more precise system for oceanic crossings
uses an HF band hyperbolic navigation system
none as long range navigation (LORAN-C).
n the graph on the next page, the hyperbolic
lines represent points that will have the same
time difference between the arrival of signals
from the two stations.
Can you deduce how position is determined?
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2.8.2 Hyperbolic LORAN- C
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3. nertial navigation (N)
An inertial navigation system includes at least a
computer and a platform or module containing
accelerometers and gyroscopes, or other motion-
sensing devices. The NS is initially provided with its
position and velocity from another source (a human
operator, a GPS satellite receiver, etc.), and
thereafter computes its own updated position and
velocity by integrating information received from the
motion sensors. The advantage of an NS is that it
requires no external references in order to
determine its position, orientation, or velocity once it
has been initialized. [ikipedia
3
]
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3.1 nertial navigation advantage
Unlike radio navigation, inertial navigation
allows for arbitrary way point navigation.
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3.2 N principle of operation
Accelerometers Gyroscopes
Calculate the
components of
acceleration
/9

/9

/9

nitial values
Acceleration in x, y and z
/9

/9

/9

nitial values
Speed in x, y and z
Coordinates in x, y and z
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3.3 Two N platform implementations:
1. Gyrostabilised platform
The accelerometers and gyroscopes are
placed on a platform that itself is stabilized
so as to maintain a fixed position in space.
Requires fine servo motors and mechanisms
to maintain stabilization
Very costly
Not very reliable
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3.3.1 Two N platform implementations:
2. Strapdown platform
The sensors are fixed to the body of the
device, and thus the aircraft.
The necessary calculations to convert the
from the vehicle axis to the space axis are
computed sing a digital computer.
Less costly, less maintenance.
More reliable.
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3.3.2 Two N platform implementations:
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3.4 N System of axis
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3.5 Stand-alone NS
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4. Global navigation satellite
systems (GNSS)
Three systems:
GLONASS
Galileo
GPS
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4.1 GLONASS
A system of the former Soviet Union
First satellite launched in 1982, system of
24 satellites completed in 1995.
Currently the system is only about 25%
operational.
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4.2 Galileo
A European system of scheduled to enter
service around 2013.
30 satellites planned so as to provide better
coverage for higher (polar) latitudes.
ndependent of GPS (in times of war)
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4.3 GPS
American system
Operational since 1993.
24 satellites, arranged so that a minimum of 5
are always visible anywhere on earth.
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4.3.1 GPS - Principles of operation
Control segment
ground-based control stations
monitoring stations
antennas (dishes)
Space segment
the 24 satellites
User segment
ships, automobiles, airplanes, portable devices,
phones
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4.3.2 GPS - Principles of operation
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4.3.3 GPS - Principles of operation
Basic ranging and triangulation is used to
compute a receivers position.
Each satellite transmits a unique identifier code and a
precise time stamp.
The ground based control / monitoring stations keep
the precise time and positional information of each
satellite up-to-date.
The receiver can accurately pin-point its position by
knowing the signal time travel from at least 4
satellites.
Accuracy: 100 m (all users), 16 m (selective availability)
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4.3.4 GPS is not perfect
Atmospheric affects
The speed of the signal is affected by ionospheric and
tropospheric conditions.
Sun spots
Propagation via multiple paths (multi path) can
cause time discrepancies.
The internal satellite positional data (ephemeris)
can accumulate error.
t is possible to jam (locally) GPS signals.
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4.3.5 Differential GPS (DGPS)
Selective availability causes problems for users
requiring reliably accurate information, such as
civil aviation.
For improved accuracy, differential GPS has
been introduced wherein position corrections are
provided by ground stations.
ide-area DGPS corrections provided by a network
of ground stations.
Local area DGPS corrections provided by a single
ground station.
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4.3.5.1 ide-area augmentation system
(AAS)
This system improves the accuracy of the
system to within I7 m.
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4.3.5.2 Local-area augmentation system
(LAAS)
Compliments AAS at a local level
The corrected data is
transmitted in the VHF
band (line of sight).
mproves the accuracy
to I1 m.
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5. ntegrated Navigation
By integrating various means of navigation,
better performance can be achieved.
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5.1 hich system do you use?
The equipment used in an integrated navigation
system depends upon the phase of flight.
Oceanic en route
redundant NS + GPS, possibly LORAN-C
Domestic en route
NDB, VOR, DME, TACAN
Terminal
NDB, VOR, DME, TACAN + GPS
Approach
nstrument or microwave landing system (LS) / (MLS)
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5.2 The flight management system
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5.2.1 . and its interface
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5.2.2 . and its data
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6. nstrument landing system (LS)
An approach and landing system that includes:
A localizer antenna centered on the runway to provide
lateral guidance.
A glideslope antenna positioned on one side of the
runway to provide vertical guidance.
A set of marker beacons positioned in front of the
runway to indicate the stage of the landing.
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6.1 Localizer and glideslope
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6.2 LS approach markers
The frequency
increases as
you approach
the runway
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7. n-class exercises
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Recall the principle of operation of a VOR;
assume the beacon secondary transmitter
is initialized at 0 (North) and the direction
of rotation is clockwise.
f your aircraft is receiving the 30 Hz
sweep signal at 56/6 radians out of phase
with the reference 30 Hz signal,
what is your bearing?
7.1 Quick response exercise # 1
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7.2 Quick response exercise #2
You get a 135 bearing to a VOR beacon
and you adjust your aircraft heading to that
bearing. Five minutes later you recheck
your VOR and discover that your bearing
to the VOR is now 145.
How is this possible?
hat impact does this have on the design of
a (simple) auto-pilot system?
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7.3 Quick response exercise #3
A navigator-in-training takes a hand-held GPS onto a
cross-country flight on a CC130. He is getting position
information from within the cargo bay, but frequently gets
a lost signal error. He decides to move next to one of
the windows to get better satellite coverage. He radios
the cockpit to ask for their position reading, and
discovers that it is not quite the same as his GPS.
hich is likely more accurate?
hat are the sources of error with the hand-held?
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References
1) Moir & Seabridge, "Military Avionics Systems, American nstitute
of Aeronautics & Astronautics, 2006. [Sections 2.6 & 2.7]
2) Collinson, "ntroduction to Avionics Systems, Second Edition,
Springer, 2006.
3) ikipedia, VHF omnidirectional range,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VHF_omnidirectional_range
4) Mark A. Hicks, "Clip art licensed from the Clip Art Gallery on
DiscoverySchool.com"