You are on page 1of 24

A PRESENTATION

ON

DEFINITION:
A VFD is special type of device for controlling the rotational speed of an AC motor by controlling the frequency of the electrical power supplied to the motor.

MAYUKH DUTTA CHOWDHURY

WHY V.F.D REQUIRES IN A SYSTEM?


Better process control and regulation. Speeding up or slowing down a machine or process. Inherent power-factor correction Emergency bypass capability Protection from overload currents Safe Acceleration Run a machine or process at a desired speed. Produce adequate torque to handle the load. Use power efficiently to produce the necessary torque at a given speed. Effectively monitor the application or process.

MAYUKH DUTTA CHOWDHURY

TYPES:
Types of VFD

On the basis of control

On the basis I/P supply

Constant Voltage Converter


Constant Current Converter Cyclo-converter

1Ph IN-1Ph OUT


1Ph IN-3Ph OUT 3Ph IN-3Ph OUT

MAYUKH DUTTA CHOWDHURY

CONTD.

Constant voltage converter: Intermediate DC link voltage remains approximately constant during each output cycle.

Constant current drives: Large inductor is placed between the input rectifier and the output bridge, so the current delivered is nearly constant.

Cyclo-converter: No input rectifier or DC link and instead connects each output terminal to the appropriate input phase.

MAYUKH DUTTA CHOWDHURY

CONTD.

Single Ph IN-Single Ph OUT: Input supply 220V, single phase, 50Hz Output 220V, single phase, 50Hz

Single Ph IN-Three Ph OUT: Input supply 220V, single phase, 50Hz Output 220V, Three phase, 50Hz

Three Ph IN-Three Ph OUT: Input supply 415V, three phase, 50Hz Output 415V, three phase, 50Hz

MAYUKH DUTTA CHOWDHURY

INDUCTION MOTOR PRINCIPLE:

Typical speed versus torque curve for a NEMA design B motor

MAYUKH DUTTA CHOWDHURY

BASIC THEORY OF ELECTRIC MOTOR:


Synchronous Speed =

120 x frequency

no. of motor poles

The starting current is very high, between 3 to 8 times the full load current. Depending on the size of the motor, this can result in voltage sags in the power system. The full torque is applied instantly at starting and the mechanical shock can eventually damage the drive system. In spite of the high starting current, for some applications the starting torque may be relatively low, only 1.0 to 2.5 times full load torque.
MAYUKH DUTTA CHOWDHURY

SPEED CONTROL OF AC MOTOR:


AC motor speed change can be accomplished in three ways:

Changing the number of poles of the motor

By varying resistors, or the stator voltage


Changing the frequency of the power supplied to the motor, that can be done by VFD.

MAYUKH DUTTA CHOWDHURY

VFD BASICS:

MAYUKH DUTTA CHOWDHURY

CONTD.

At first the AC input power is converted into to DC intermediate power using a converter bridge. DC intermediate power is then converted to quasisinusoidal AC power using an inverter switching circuit. Any ripple must be smoothed out before any transistor switches on. If not, this distortion will show up in the output to the motor.

Then an inverter circuit usually 3-phase, transistor circuit again converts the dc power into ac to run the motor drive .

MAYUKH DUTTA CHOWDHURY

OPERATION AT A GLANCE:

MAYUKH DUTTA CHOWDHURY

TRANSISTOR (PNP OR NPN) SWITCH:

While PNP transistors are normally used for a negative ground configuration, but it is possible use a NPN transistor if a positive ground configuration can be achieved. A voltage regulator using vertical isolated PNP transistor is more efficient than regulators with NPN pass transistors because the drop out is lower. And it is more efficient than a regulator having a lateral PNP pass transistor because the quiescent current is lower. But the selection of configuration is totally user & requirement dependent. When using a transistor as a switch, it is very important to use a 1N4001 diode reversed biased in parallel with the field. This is to prevent the kickback voltage in the reverse polarity from destroying the transistor.

MAYUKH DUTTA CHOWDHURY

PWM PHENOMENON:

To achieve variable motor voltage, VFD uses Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique. With PWM voltage control, the inverter switches are used to construct a quasi-sinusoidal output waveform by a series of narrow voltage pulses with pseudo-sinusoidal varying pulse durations.
MAYUKH DUTTA CHOWDHURY

VOLTS (V) PER HERTZ (F) CONCEPT:


AC motor characteristics require the applied voltage to be proportionally adjusted whenever the frequency is changed in order to deliver the rated torque. For example, if a motor is designed to operate at 460 volts at 50 Hz, the applied voltage must be reduced to 230 volts when the frequency is reduced to 25 Hz. Thus the ratio of volts per hertz must be regulated to a constant value (460/50 = 9.2 V/Hz in this case).

MAYUKH DUTTA CHOWDHURY

CONTROLLING OF VFD:

An embedded microprocessor governs the overall operation of the VFD controller.

The main microprocessor programming is in firmware that is inaccessible to the VFD user.
However, some degree of configuration in programming and parameter adjustment usually provided. The user can customize the VFD controller as per specification of the motor and driven equipment requirements.

MAYUKH DUTTA CHOWDHURY

VFD OPERATOR INTERFACE:

Provides a means for an operator to start and stop the motor and adjust the operating speed. Additional operator control functions might include reversing and switching between manual speed adjustment and automatic control from an external process signal.

MAYUKH DUTTA CHOWDHURY

VFD CONNECTION CONFIGURATION:

For DELTA makeI/P SIDE O/P SIDE

L1 L2 L3 CONTROL SIDE RA RC +10V AVI

U1 V1 W1 GND

M0 M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 GND

VFD HEALTHY SIGNAL


POT

REVERSE FORWARD

MAYUKH DUTTA CHOWDHURY

For EMERSON makeI/P SIDE O/P SIDE

L1 L2 L3 REF. VOLT. (A1) REF. VOLT. (A2)

U1 V1 W1 GND FORWARD REVERSE DRIVE ENABLE

+10V

+24 V

T1

T2

T3

T4

B1

B2 B3 B4

B5

B6 B7

POT

MAYUKH DUTTA CHOWDHURY

JOG

OV

For DANFOSS make-

I/P SIDE 51 51

O/P SIDE

L1 L2 L3

U CONTROL TERMINALS

GND

R+ R-

VFD HEALTHY SIGNAL

START

POT

MAYUKH DUTTA CHOWDHURY

VFD OPERATION:

When an induction motor is connected to a full voltage supply, it draws several times (up to about 6 times) its rated current. As the load accelerates, the available torque usually drops a little and then rises to a peak while the current remains very high until the motor approaches full speed. When a VFD starts a motor, it initially applies a low frequency and voltage to the motor.

MAYUKH DUTTA CHOWDHURY

CONTD.

The starting frequency is typically 2 Hz or less. Starting at such a low frequency avoids the high inrush current that occurs when a motor is started by simply applying the utility (mains) voltage by turning on a switch.
After the start of the VFD, the applied frequency and voltage are increased at a controlled rate or ramped up to accelerate the load without drawing excessive current. Typically allows a motor to develop 150% of its rated torque while the VFD is drawing less than 50% of its rated current from the mains in the low speed range. A VFD can be adjusted to produce a steady 150% starting torque from standstill right up to full speed.

MAYUKH DUTTA CHOWDHURY

STATUTORY WARNING FOR OPERATORS:


To avoid overheating and shorter operation life of VFD, the technicians must take care on the following issues:

To limit the voltage distortion the owner of the VFDs may be required to install filtering equipment to smooth out the irregular waveforms of voltage spike. Even better attenuation of the harmonics can be obtained by using an LCL (inductor-capacitorinductor) filter instead of single three-phase filter inductor. Always read the operation manual carefully before connecting or setting any parameter of the VFD.

MAYUKH DUTTA CHOWDHURY

THANK YOU