# SIMPLE QC TOOLS

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What are they ?

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² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ²

Data gathering Check sheet Stratification Pareto diagram Brain Storming Cause and Effect Diagram Histogram Scatter diagram Graphs and Charts
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What is their role ?

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In problem solving

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What is a problem ?

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Problem is an unsatisfied performance in product/service.

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A problem could be
• nonconformance • scrap • chronic rework • recurring accepted on deviation • poor yield • customer complaint • machine breakdown • low process capability • loosing customers • reducing market share • late delivery, etc.

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What is solving ?
•To identify a “state” where the above symptoms do not occur.

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Known approaches for problem solving
A. Experience/Intuition oriented B. Data based

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Known approaches for problem solving ...
‘A’ is traditionally used, as it requires no factual analysis or observations Symptom Remedy

‘B’ is scientific and methodical. Symptom Root Cause Remedy

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Known approaches for problem solving ... In problem solving by approach ‘B’ , Simple QC tools play a role

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Role Play
Tool
Data gathering

Role Play
To quantify the current status or magnitude of the problem To facilitate data gathering To identify and segregate different sources of the problem

Check sheet Stratification

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Role Play….
Tool
Pareto diagram

Role Play
To prioritize the problems/causes for taking action Generating many ideas for solving a specific problem Generate ideas in a structured way for possible causes of a problem
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Brain storming

Cause and effect diagram

Role Play….
Tool
Histogram Scatter diagram

Role Play
To study the pattern of variation in a set of data. To study the relationship between two sets of values

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DATA GATHERING

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Data Collection
What is Data ? Data is a numerical expression of an activity

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Conclusions based on facts and data are necessary for any improvement. K. Ishikawa If you are not able to express a phenomenon in numbers, you do not know about it adequately Lord Kelvin
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Types of Data
Quantitative
•Measurable  e.g. :Length, Temperature •Countable  e.g. :Number of defects
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Qualitative
•Subjective assessment  e.g. :Score in a beauty contest

Population, Sample and Data
Action

X

Lot

Random Sampling

Sample Action

Measurement / Observation

Data

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Data: If Properly Collected
•Least influenced by individual biases •Could be subject to critical analysis •Generally beyond language barriers and therefore universal in expression.

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Objectives of Data Collection
•To know and quantify the status •To monitor the process •To decide acceptance or rejection •To analyse and decide the course of action
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How to Collect Data ?
•Define the purpose •Decide the type of analysis •Define the period of data collection •Is the the required data already available ?
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Sources of False Data • Fear
•Frustration
of data Because of unfavorable results Because of non-use or misuse

“Data must be collected, not cooked”.

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Causes for Mistaken Data • Wrong choice of instrument
•Lack of calibration •Improper sampling •Lack of standards •Inadequate test facilities •Lack of training
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For Proper Data Collection • Proper sampling procedure
•Proper choice of instruments •Calibration of instruments used •Availability of standards for sensory characteristics •Adequate lighting and other test/inspection facilities. •Record all relevant information

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CHECK SHEET

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A check sheet is a convenient and compact format for collection of data

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Purpose of Check Sheet
Simplification of data gathering Provide preliminary summarisation Provide a basis for statistical analysis
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Uses of Check Sheet
Problem monitoring Direction for trouble shooting

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Areas of application • Raw material
No. of defects, location of defect, measurements on quality characteristics

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Areas of application
• Production
Measurements on process parameters, No. of defects in products, Location of defect.

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Areas of application
• Maintenance
Maintenance time, down time, machine wise break down, causes of break down.

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Type of check sheets for various purposes
Purpose of Checking
Determine defect details Determine occurrence of defects by day of the week, operator machine etc. Determine where defects occur Determine dispersion of dimensions, hardness, weight etc.

Type of Check Sheet
Defective item check sheet Defect factor check sheet Defect location check sheet Process distribution check sheet

Inspect machines or equipment or check the Inspection and validation operating procedure check sheet

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How to make a check sheet
• Clarifying the objective • Determining the type of check sheet to use • Deciding which items to check • Creating the check sheet • Recording the data • Tallying the data • Examining the check sheet

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Production Process Distribution Check sheet Diameter of Component X
Department : Specification :
Measurement (cms)  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  l lll llll llll llll llll llll llll llll llll llll    

Operator : Dates : Frequency of occurrence
              Total                

to

ll llll llll llll llll llll l

llll llll llll llll llll

ll llll llll llll lll

llll llll llll

llll l

llll

llll

l

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Location Check sheet
Hood Paint Defects
Name: ____ Date: ____ Model: ____ DD S XXX X X = Dirt D = Dent S = Scratch B = Bubble D

B

No. inspected: _____

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STRATIFICATION

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The method of grouping data by common points or characteristics to better understand similarities and characteristics of data is called stratification.

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Such classification helps in obtaining vital information by distinguishing and comparing data in different class or strata. It also identifies the key strata to concentrate on
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The stratification may be based on machines, operators, shifts or any other source of variation.

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The purpose of stratification is to ascertain the difference between different categories and to analyse the reasons behind abnormal distribution.
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Stratification of data is an effective method for isolating the cause of a problem.

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You can also stratify the data you collect by different QC tools such as graphs, Pareto diagrams, check sheets, histograms, scatter diagrams, and control charts.

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Areas of application
• Raw material
Quantity supplied, Delivery time, Rejection % - supplier wise and batch wise.

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Areas of application
• Production
Stratification of rejection percentage with respect to r Machine, Shift, operator, raw material, tool, jig and so on.

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Areas of application
• Engineering and design
Stratification of drawing errors draftsman wise.

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PARETO DIAGRAM

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The Pareto Principal is generally used to prioritize quality improvement projects to get most returns for the resources invested. It is one of the most powerful tools and is widely used as means of attacking bulk of the problems with the optimal utilization of resources.

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The basic principle of Pareto is “ Around 80% of overall effect is contributed by 20% of causes & vice versa”

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Pareto chart by effect
• To find out what the major problem is Viz.
Quality
Defects, Faults , Failures, Complaints, Repairs, Returned items etc.

Cost Amount of loss, Expenses Delivery Stock, Shortages, Delay in delivery,
Default in payment.

Safety

Accidents, Breakdowns, mistakes.

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Pareto chart by Cause
• To find out what the major problem is Viz.
Operator Machine Raw material Operational method
Shift, Group, Experience, Skill. Machines, Equipment, Tools Manufacturer, lot Conditions, Order, Method
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How to prepare a Pareto diagram
 Decide which item to be studied.  Stratify the problem according to sources (by defects, by supplier etc.) and tabulate the corresponding data.  Preferably data should be expressed in monetary terms rather than quantity or percentage.  Arrange the stratified items in descending order of value and draw a bar diagram.  Draw a curve showing the cumulative % above the bar chart starting from the greatest value.

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Uses of Pareto diagram
 Find out the most important item/defect.  Ratio of each item to the whole.  Degree of improvement after remedial action in some limited area.  Improvement in each item/defect compared before and after correction.

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Pareto Diagram for M achine Stoppages (M  /C No.
               
Top Fo d ng W t. a Vr at on e b. m /c k pt . am m ng t r an f s er /s pr n g ck ag / egu n m o pack et e ec . pr ob em fo e f g ed n /c

)

D e fe c t
C ount P ercent C um %

   .   .

   .   .

La

p cu

 .    .

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pot

ea

 .    .

a L

be. m

 .    .

 .    .

.    .

Pe r c e n t
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C ount

Pareto Analysis of Passenger Complaints at an Airport
 
         

 

       

     

No. of complaints

     

 
    

      

Flight Baggage Service Problems

Refund

Fares

others

Cum. percentage

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Pareto Analysis of Customer Complaints
. 
 

 

.  .  .  . 

          Cum Percentage

  No. of complaints       

          

Fish not Vegetable fresh wilted

Cashier Rude

Meat not Fresh

Eggs rotten
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Pareto Analysis of Complaints at a Laundry
      No. of complaints               

       

 

 

           

 

        

Late Missing Fading delivery or wrong colours items

Stains

Creased Buttons Stretched Missing or torn

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Pareto Analysis for inspection of product ABC
 

 
 

. 

. 

. 

 

         

.  . 

No. of Defectives

 

 

. 

     

 

   

 Bubbles Rough finish Scratches Damaged packaging Weak corners Cracks Stains Others

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Pareto Analysis of Pulp Defects
             

.  .  . 

 

         

. 

          

Pentosan

S  Ash content .

Acid insolubles

others

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Pareto Diagram for Production Stoppage
 
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • M/C quality change Intermediate conveyor Power failure Hopper/duct line jamming Dryer drum coupling pin B P full press problem Dryer preventive Nip roller Rotary comb tripped Comber jamming Al conveyor idle roller Fire Accumulation Drum seal changing Fan tripping Chain problem Fiber jamming Zone gear box Zone conveyor

        No. of stoppages           A B C D E F G H I J K LM N O P Q R S

                   Cumulative %

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BRAIN STORMING

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What is Brainstorming ?
Brainstorming is a simple but effective technique for generating many ideas of a group of people within a short span of time to solve a given problem

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Basic Rules for Brainstorming
• • • • Defer evaluation Fantasize freely Generate quantity Build on ideas

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Defer Evaluation
Put critical faculties in cold storageeven constructive criticism. This is to ensure a proper climate of acceptance of all sorts of ideas. No idea should be treated as stupid.

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Fantasize Freely
Don’t operate with your brakes on. The participants are encouraged, urged to let themselves go and generate ideas, no matter how fanciful these ideas are.

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Generate Quantity
Generate as many ideas as possible. A pearl diver will be more successful in finding pearls, perhaps the pearl, when he brings up 200 oysters than when he surfaces only 15-20 oysters.

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Build on ideas
Idea of one participant is more effectively built up by another participant.

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Principles of Brainstorming
• Deferment of evaluation develops the

appropriate psychologically safe climate for ideation • The uniqueness of each participants’ knowledge is tapped to develop new insights

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Principles of Brainstorming
…….Contd

• Ideas of one participant tend to trigger off ideas in the brains of other group members • Free association encourages fruitful ideation • The pressure of time bound sessions in a non-threatening atmosphere is conductive to a high productivity of ideas
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Steps to Brainstorming
• Choose the topic • Each member, in rotation, is asked for ideas • Each member offers only one idea per turn, regardless of how many he or she has in mind • This continues until all the ideas have been exhausted • Ideas are to be recorded and displayed on transparent sheets

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Ways to effective Brainstorming
• • • • Give everyone a chance to speak Do not criticise ideas Record all ideas Ideas are expanded and used to come up with more ideas • Free expression in any language that the person giving the idea is most comfortable with
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When to use the Brainstorming Technique
• To find a solution to a specific problem • To suggest counter-measures when the target has not been achieved • To select a theme/topic • To find causes of a specific problem

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Key Points
• Acquaint the participants with the technique of Brainstorming. A warmup session of the nature developed later helps. • Obtain the commitment of the management to encourage the development and implementation of worthwhile ideas.
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Key Points (Contd..)
• Set up appropriate criteria to evaluate the several ideas considered worthwhile. • Screen all the ideas generated. • Keep participants advised of the final choice of the ideas and the actions initiated.
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Benefits of Brainstorming
• Individual is limited in generating ideas and that group produces more ideas • Ideas are improved upon by members • Presence of others increases creativity • Pooling of ideas and resources is made possible by coming together as a group

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CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM

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To generate in a structured manner, maximum number of ideas regarding possible causes for a problem by using brainstorming technique.

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How to prepare Cause and Effect Diagram
• • • • Clarify the problem Gather members for discussion Conduct Brainstorming session Group the causes into 4M’s
• Man, Material, Machine, Method

• Draw the cause and effect chart • Check for missing information • Determine importance of significance of causes
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Structure of a Cause and Effect Diagram
Man Machine

Problem

Material

Method

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Structure of a Cause and Effect Diagram (Contd…..)
Each of the main branches has many potential sub branches that further subdivide the potential causes

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Cause and Effect Diagram for high petrol consumption
Procedure
Impatience Craze

Driver

Vehicle
Heavy Body Shape Inexperience High H.P Engine Cylinders Spark plugs Contacts Life Technical details Fuel mix Carburetor

Poor anticipation Wrong gears Wrong culture Poor skill

Always late Lack of awareness Riding on clutch

High Petrol

Restrictions One way Circuitous Road No turn

Crossings Traffic

Spares

Spurious

Consumption
Impurities Incorrect Octane no.

Tyres Inferior Frequent Petrol Faulty stops Negligence pressure Speed Breakers Additives Ignorance Potholes Irregular Incorrect viscosity Low pressure servicing Poor Clogged Oil condition filters False Steep Not changed economy Low level

Maintenance

Materials

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Cause & Effect Diagram
PROCESS
COOKING TIME COOKING TEMP.

MATERIALS
QTY OF WATER WOOD QLTY (OLD/FRESH) VARIATION IN PENTOSANS IN FINAL PULP

TRAINED

UNTRAINED

INSTRUMENT ACCURACY

PERSONNEL

EQUIPMENTS

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Cause & Effect Diagram
MAN
IMPROPER SAMPLING INADEQUATE MONITORING

MACHINE
IMPROPER MIXING UNCALIBRATED INSTRUMENT HYPO PULP VISCOSITY

HIGH/LOW DOSAGE

HIGH/LOW VARIATION IN TEMP. HYPO SOLN. gpl

ALKALI cP VARIATION

METHOD

MATERIAL

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Uses of Cause and effect diagram
• To investigate and list down the cause and effect relationship of problem under investigation. • Analyze the problem to trace the real root cause. • To help stratification for collection of further data to confirm relationship. • To help evolve counter-measure.
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HISTOGRAM

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Histogram is a graph that displays the distribution of data

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Histogram is characterised by three constituents
• An over all shape • A centre ( mean) • A width (spread)

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How to make a Histogram
• • • • • • Select a sample of size N. Record the measurements. Determine the range. Decide the number of classes. Determine the boundary or class limits. Prepare frequency distribution using tally marks • Construct histogram.
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Data on Metal Block thickness (in mm)
 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .

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Frequency Table
Class no.          Class Boundaries  –  . .  –  . .  –  . .  –  . .  –  . .  –  . .  –  . .  –  . .  –  . . Mid-value  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . Frequency            

91

Histogram for Metal Block Thickness
        Frequency            .  .  .  .  . Thickness (in mm)  .  .  .  .          

92

Histogram for Bearing Thickness
        Frequency            .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . Thickness (in mm)             

   

93

Histogram for Energy Consumption
      Frequency        .   .   .  .   .  .   .   .  .  Consumption(KWh)            

 

94

Histogram for variation in Run time of Refrigerators in 24 hours
     

 

Frequency

  

 

 

 

  

  

 .   .    .   .  .    .   .  .    .   .  Run time (%)

95

Histogram for Pentosans in Final Pulp(%)
      No. of samples         .    .    .    .    .    .  Pentosans in Final Pulp (% ))        

 

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Applications of Histograms
• • • • • Study the pattern of variation Comparison to Specification limits Comparison to Sources of Variability Outlier Detection Before and After Comparison
97

Comparison of Histogram with Specification Limits

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Types of Histograms

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Types of Histograms
Bell shaped
Symmetrical shape with a peak in middle representing a normal histogram

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Types of Histograms
Double peaked
Two normal distributions with two peaks in middle indicating more than one distribution at work

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Types of Histograms
Plateau
More than one distribution at work

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Types of Histograms
Comb
Alternative peaks showing possible errors in data collection and analysis

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Types of Histograms
Skewed
An asymmetrical shape - positively or negatively skewed - usually reflecting limits in the specification on one side
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Types of Histograms
Truncated
Usually being a part of a normal distribution with part of it having been removed.

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Types of Histograms
Isolated peak
Two normal distributions suggesting two processes taking place at the same time.

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Types of Histograms
Edged peaked
A normal distribution curve with a large peak at one end indicating errors in data recording.

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SCATTER DIAGRAM

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If two variables x and y, are related such that as x increases / decreases with another variable y, a correlation is said to exist between them.
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A scatter diagram is a chart that pictorially depicts the relationship between two such data types.

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Some examples of relationship
• • • • • • Cutting speed and tool life Moisture content and thread elongation Breakdown and equipment age Temperature and lipstick hardness Striking pressure and electrical current Temperature and percent foam in soft drinks

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Scatter diagram on Automotive Speed vs. Mileage
             

Mileage (km/Lit)

 

 

 

 

 

Speed (km/h)

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A scatter diagram depicts the relationship as a pattern that can be directly read.

113

Different Scatter diagram Patterns

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If y increases with x, then x and y are positively correlated.

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If y decreases as x increases, then the two types of data are negatively correlated.

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If no significant relationship is apparent between x and y, then the two data types are not correlated.

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How to make a Scatter diagram
• Collect 30 to 50 pairs of quantitative data (x and y). • Choosing units that express the range of the x and y values, draw an x scale along the horizontal axis and a y scale along the vertical axis. • Plot the data pairs (x, y) as points on a scatter diagram.

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Data on Conveyor Speed and Severed Length
Sl. No.                      Conveyor Speed (cm/sec)  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . Severed Length (mm)                               Sl. No.                               Conveyor Speed (cm/sec)  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . Severed Length (mm)                              
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Scatter Diagram on Conveyor Speed vs. Severed Length

                        .   .   .   . 

Severed Length (mm)

Conveyor Speed (cm/sec)

120

Uses of Scatter Diagram
• If an increase in y depends on increase in x, then, if x is controlled y will be naturally controlled. • If x is increased, y will increase somewhat. Then y seems to have causes other than x.

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GRAPHS and CHARTS

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Graphs and charts are pictorial representation of the data, making it easy to spot trends, ratios and comparisons among different groups of data.

123

The more common types of graphs and charts are Line graphs, Bar charts and Pie charts.

124

Purpose of Graphs and Charts
To present the numerical data in an easy-to-plot visual form.

125

Purpose of Graphs and Charts
Line graphs are used to depict change or variation over time.

126

Purpose of Graphs and Charts
Bar charts are used for comparing quantities between persons, regions, time intervals etc.

127

Purpose of Graphs and Charts Pie charts are used to show percentages or proportions of different components of a specific item.
128

Procedure for making Graphs and Charts
• Select the type of chart or graph most suitable for the type of data. • Decide the units and scale of items to be shown on X-axis and Y-axis • Fill the information on the graph sheet. • Join the required points to complete lines or bars. • Colour or shade the lines or bars to distinguish between different groups or classes. • Provide appropriate title.

129

% Defectives for different Weeks for product XYZ
 .   . 

% Defectives

 .   .   .            

Week Number

130

Average Production in different months
      Avg. Production (Tons)              Jan Feb Mar Month Apr May Jun            

131

Horizontal Bar Graph
Poor  

Personnel Performance

Average

 

Very Good

 

Excellent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Percentage

132

Comparison of Machines A & B for weekly Rejection
    % Rejection                    Week Number                             

 

133

Comparison of Machines A & B for Units Produced
    Units Produced                           Week Number                                        

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Pie Chart for Customer returned watches
• • • • • • • A - Glass Broken B - Stop C - Mvt. Trouble D - Defective Dial E - Regulation F - Stem Loose G - Others
E  % D  % A %  C %  F  % G  %

B % 

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