Streets

Definition
A street is a public thoroughfare in the built environment. It is a public parcel of land adjoining buildings in an urban context, on which people may freely assemble, interact, and move about.

Paseo de gracia,

History
Any classification of streets must start with Vitruvius and his description of the three street scenes for use as the backdrop in a theatre. ‘There are three kinds of scenes, one called tragic, second, the comic, third the satyric.’ Paseo de gracia,

Streets & City’s character
‘Streets and t heir sidewalks, the main public space of a city, are its most vital organs. Think of a city and what comes to mind? Its streets. If a city’s streets look interesting, the city looks interesting; if they look dull, the city looks dull.’ Jane Jacobs

Avenue des ChampsElysées, Paris

Streets & crime activities
Law and order situation do get effected by the streets, The breakdown of law and order can be seen as a consequence of the rejection of the street by modern planners and its replacement by large building blocks set in a sea of amorphous, unowned space- the ideal for the mugger an d the thief.

An empty street in Misasa, Tottori

The street in addition to being a physical element in the city is also a social fact. It can be analyzed in terms of who owns, uses and controls it; the purposes for which, while it may not determine social structures, does inhibit certain activities and make others possible. The street provides a link between buildings. Strøget, Copenhagen

Social environment

Factors important in deigning streets User density
Land-use mix Pedestrian vehicular interaction Configuration Context Form Street length Proportion Unity in design

User density
It appears that most street activity occurs when it is convenient for large numbers of pedestrians to use streets in a variety of ways. Activity in streets increases when densities are high enough Strøget, Copenhagen to inhibit the use of the motor car and to support a range of facilities such as shops and schools

Land-use mix
A variety of land uses stimulating many activities is a prerequisite of a lively street. The elimination of all non-confirming uses from the residential area reduces the propensity for social contact and interaction in the street. Strøget, Copenhagen

pedestrian-vehicular interaction is conditioned by the function of the street. While total separation of vehicles and pedestrians can be harmful to the development of a lively Istiklal Cadessi, Istanbul and active street, many pedestrianized town centers in Continental Europe and Britain are

Pedestrian vehicular interaction The precise form of

Pedestrian vehicular interaction The success of
pedestrian areas is dependent on the variety of attractions they offer so that pedestrians in large numbers have reason for remaining. It is also conditional for good access for both public and private transport. Avenue des Champs-

Configuration
The configuration, shape or form of the street has not received the detailed consideration given to the design of the public square.

Cours Mirabeau, Aix-en-

The form of the street can be analyzed in terms of number of polar qualities such as straight or curved, long or short, wide or narrow, enclosed or open, formal or informal. Street form can also be Cours Mirabeau, Aix-en- analyzed in terms of Province scale, proportion, contrast, rhythm or connection to other streets and squares.

Configuration Form

The street has two main characteristics directly related to form; it is, at one and at the same time, both path and place. ‘The street is not building frontage but a space about which dwellings are grouped Cours Mirabeau, Aix-en- to form a series of street pictures; or Province alternatively the street is a space that may be expanded into wider

Configuration Form

For a street to function as a place or exterior room in the city it must possess similar qualities of enclosure as the public square. The ideal street must form a completely enclosed unit. The more one’s impressions Via dei Giubbonari, Rome are confined within it, the more perfect will be its tableau: one feels at ease in a space where the gaze cannot be lost

Configuration Form

Form

‘….a street is a series of connected places, somewhere for staying in and not just for moving through.’ in the words of NordbergSchulz the street, in the pas….was a “small universe” where the character of the district and of the town as a whole was presented in condensed form to the Via dei Giubbonari, Rome visitor.

Street length

Form

There are a number of suggestions for terminating an overly long street: ‘the ancients have….. thrown an arch over the street so as to interrupt over-long perspective effects.

Street length

Avenue des Champs Elysées,

The ratio of width of street to height of enclosing buildings is a critical for good street design. When a street is long and wide with two-story houses ranged along a common frontage all sense of space enclosure is lost.

Form Proportion

When streets are narrow and flanking buildings three or four storeys it gives ‘the sense of completeness and enclosure to the pictures in the streets.’ It is being suggested that a ratio, height to width, of 1:1 is not too tight for comfort but Via dei Giubbonari, Rome that 1:2.5 is as open as cant be tolerated.

Form Proportion

Form

Climate

Paseo de gracia, Barcelona

Aesthetic factors (scale and proportion) are not the only considerations in street design. Practical consideration like climate are also important. ‘For those of a temperate and cool air, the streets ought to be made ample and broad; considering that by their breadth the city will be much wholesome, more

Form

Climate

‘The more the city is in a cold place, and has subtle air, and where edifices are very high, so much the wider the streets ought o be made, that they may, in each of their parts, be visited by the sun… but the city being in a hot country, its streets ought to be made narrow, and the houses high, that by their shade, Istiklal Cadessi, Istanbul and by the

Unity in design
‘The street is not building frontage but a space about which dwellings are grouped to form a series of street pictures; or alternatively the street is a space that may be expanded into wider spaces such as closes or squares.’ Strøget, Copenhagen Gibberd Unified street design in contradistinction elevates the spatial

Unity in design
There are a number of factors which contribute to a unified street design, possibly the most important being that the form of the buildings should appear as surfaces rather than as mass. When buildings take on A view of the street in strong threefront of Guggenheim dimensional form the museum bilbao mass of the buildings

Qualities that Contribute
Beginnings and ending

Strøget, Copenhagen

Avenue des Champs-

Qualities that Contribute
Many buildings rather than few; Diversity

Cours Mirabeau, Aix-en-

Qualities that Contribute
Special design features: Details
Paseo de gracia, Barcelona

Avenue Montaigne,

Qualities that Contribute
Places (squares, breaks, small places)
Via dei Giubbonari, Rome

Via dei Giubbonari, Rom

Case Study

Istiklal Cade

Istiklal Caddesi
Istiklal Avenue (Turkish: Istiklal Caddesi) is one of the most famous avenues in Istanbul, Turkey, visited by nearly 3 million people in a single day over the course of weekends.

Istiklal Caddesi
Located in the historic Beyoğlu district, it is an elegant pedestrian street, approximately three kilometers long, which houses exquisite boutiques, music stores, bookstores, art galleries, cinemas, theaters, libraries, cafés, pubs, night clubs with live music, historical patisseries,

Istiklal Caddesi
The avenue, surrounded by the unique nineteenth century Turkish architecture, starts from the medieval Genoese neighborhood around Galata Tower and ultimately leads up to Taksim Square.

Istiklal Caddesi
The cosmopolitan avenue is surrounded by an array of historical and politically significant buildings, such as the Çiçek Pasajı (Flower Passage) where small, intimate restaurants and taverns are found; Balık Pazarı (The Fish Market), the Italian Catholic churches of Santa Maria and S. Antonio di Padova,

Istiklal Caddesi
Throughout most of the 20th century, the street was famous for the high speeds of cars speeding down it, ad pedestrians were unwelcome. Recently, it has been turned into a pedestrian mall, and has become one of Istanbul’s most fashionable streets.

Istiklal Caddesi
During the Ottoman period, the avenue was called ‘Cadde-i Kebir’ (Grand Avenue) and was a popular spot for Ottoman intellectuals, also becoming a center for European foreigners and the local Italian and French Levantines who referred to it as ‘Grande Rue de Péra’. On October 29, 1923, the avenue's name was

Istiklal Caddesi
Lined with cafes, clothing shops, bookstores, restaurants, and apartments above the street level, the street provides a lively, constantly changing scene . Through the day, the street is full of strolling students, tourists with their maps and locals. The passageways contain shopping

Istiklal Caddesi
One of the reasons for Istiklal Caddesi to be a success as a great street is its important location. It is accessible by bus from Taksim square and by foot from several neighborhoods. The street also has a tram service.

Istiklal Caddesi
The street is pleasantly attractive representing a European and Turkish culture. Its narrowness and its enclosed effect gives a feel of safety. The maintenance of the street is also good.

Istiklal Cadessi
The closeness and the human activity on the street makes it a space that functions as meeting spot or a place for social interaction. The users of the streets are mostly young people gather to talk or just stroll. The street has few of the major attractions that draw people to Istanbul, making it mostly utilized by

Conclusion
Great streets do not just happen. Overwhelmingly, the best streets drive from a conscious act of conception and creation of the street as a whole. The hands of decision makers, sometimes of specific designers,

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful