Prologue How Psychology Became a Science


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 What

is psychology?  Historical perspectives of the field  The great theoretical frameworks  Modern psychology  Great debates of psychology

believe that certain questions regarding human nature are unanswerable P-3 . from biological to social influences  Gain new knowledge from each vantage point – Attempts to answer many exceptionally difficult questions (e. consciousness)  Mysterians .g.What Is Psychology?  What scientific psychologists do the mind and brain – Spans many levels of explanation.

overlap among different causes of behaviour P-4 .Ten Things That Make Psychology Challenging 1) behaviour is difficult to predict  Meehl’s maxim 2) behaviour is multiply determined – Question single-variable explanations 3) Psychological influences are rarely independent of one another – Multicollinearity .

g.Ten Things That Make Psychology Challenging 4) Psychological influences are often unknown 5) People affect each other (reciprocal determinism) 6) Many psychological concepts are difficult to define (e. intelligence) ..jangle fallacy 7) The brain didn’t evolve to understand itself (paradox of reflexivity) P-5 .

individual differences in thinking. behaviour 10) Culture influences people’s behaviour – Emic (insider) vs. etic (outsider) approaches to studying a culture’s behaviour P-6 . emotion.Ten Things That Make Psychology Challenging 8) People in psychological experiments usually know they’re being studied – Problem of reactivity 9) People differ from each other .

launching psychology as an experimental science – – Said mental events could be quantified. William Wundt followed William James’ lead and developed the first ‘official’ psychology laboratory in Germany.Psychology’s Liberation from Philosophy   For many centuries. via introspection and other techniques (measure reaction times) Attempted to emulate the methods of the traditional sciences P-7 . psychology was indistinguishable from philosophy In the late 1800s.

but never uncovered scientific evidence Psychology distanced itself from spiritualism by forging a new field: the psychology of human error and selfdeception (Jastrow) Parapsychology still exists as a tiny branch of the field P-8 . Americans were obsessed with the paranormal The general public saw psychology and spiritualism as inextricably linked Some psychologists investigated spirit mediums and psychics.Psychology’s Liberation from Spiritualism      In the 1800s.

APS (research) P-9 . and many others Controversy: scientist-practitioner gap – –  The role of recovered memories APA (clinical) vs.Psychology Today  A diversity of approaches: from clinical psychology to neuroscience to sport psychology.

feelings) using introspection – Two major problems:   Findings lacked reliability Imageless thought – Underscored importance of systematic observations P-10 . images.Great Theoretical Frameworks of Psychology 1) Structuralism .aimed to identify the basic elements of psychological experience – ‘Map’ the elements of consciousness (sensations.

feelings.Great Theoretical Frameworks of Psychology 2) Functionalism . behaviours) – Psychologists must act as ‘detectives’ to discover these purposes – Founded by William James – Evolutionary aspect still influences modern psychology (influenced by Darwin) P-11 .aimed to understand the adaptive purposes of psychological characteristics (thoughts.

B. not relying on subjective reports – Founded by John B.focuses on uncovering the general laws of learning by looking outside the organism to rewards and punishments delivered by the environment – Psychological science must be objective.F. Watson.their view of the mind: an unknown entity which we need not understand in order to explain behaviour P-12 .Great Theoretical Frameworks of Psychology 3) Behaviourism . Skinner was follower – Black box .

proposes that our thinking (cognition) affects our behaviour in powerful ways – – – Rewards and punishments can’t fully explain behaviour because our interpretation of these is a crucial determinant of behaviour We also learn by insight Jean Piaget and Ulric Neisser are cognitivists P-13 .Great Theoretical Frameworks of Psychology 4) Cognitivism .

memories) of which we’re unaware – Maintains that our everyday lives are filled with symbols. thoughts. which psychoanalysts must decode – Emphasis on the role of early experiences – Problem: unconscious processes are difficult to verify P-14 .focuses on internal psychological processes (impulses.Great Theoretical Frameworks of Psychology 5) Psychoanalysis .

approach of using many different methods in concert (surveys.)   Basic and applied research Translating research findings into real-world applications (e. etc.g. laboratory experiments. third brake light. etc.Modern Psychology  Critical Multiplism .. real-world observation.) P-15 . sequential police lineups.

.. M... they cannot prescribe medication (though psychiatrists (M.g.W.Types of Psychologists 1) Clinical . Ph. marital or occupational difficulties) P-16 . etc. causes and treatment of mental disorders – – Except in NM and LA.S.D.D. with normal people experiencing temporary or self-contained problems (e.D.) 2) Counselling .assessment.s) can) Therapists may have different degrees (Psy.

Types of Psychologists 3) School .assess schoolchildren’s psychological problems and develop intervention programs – Differs from educational psychology 4) Developmental . why and how people change over time – Most work with infants and children 5) Experimental . and thinking of humans P-17 .use sophisticated research methods to study memory.

and assist with rehabilitation and treatment of prison inmates – Others conduct research on eyewitness testimony or jury decision making P-18 .assess.Types of Psychologists 6) Biopsychologists . diagnose.examine the physiological basis of behaviour in animals and humans – Most work in research settings 7) Forensic .

work in businesses to assist in employee selection and evaluation. and sport Most psychologists rely on scientific methods P-19 . examining the effects of working conditions on employee behaviour. quantitative. etc. designing equipment to maximize performance and minimize accidents. cross-cultural.Types of Psychologists 8) Industrial-organizational . – Requires extensive statistical and mathematical training   Other areas of psychology include social. personality.

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc. .

In order to identify which areas of the brain are responsible for particular behavioural functions. P-21  . we can manipulate a precise brain area and examine the behavioural response (or lack of).Apply Your Thinking  Why do we study psychology in non-human animals? One reason: to better link the brain and behaviour.

There’s relatively little evidence that criminal profiling is effective for solving crimes. a technique used by the FBI to track down serial killers. is one of the most effective means of catching criminals.True or False? Criminal profiling. FALSE. P-22 .

research conducted by behaviour geneticists and others suggests that most psychological traits are substantially influenced by genes behaviour is attributable to both genes and environment.applies Darwin’s theory of natural selection to human and animal behaviour  Just-so stories ..g..superficial explanations made up after the fact (e. religious affiliation) Evolutionary psychology .The Great Debates of Psychology  Nature . but the relative balance of the two depends on which characteristic we measure (e. male baldness serves an evolutionary function because women perceive these men as more mature) P-23 .g. risk for ADHD vs.Nurture – – – (Locke)? Tabula rasa No.

though we perceive them as under our control Compatibilism . without conscious awareness.The Great Debates of Psychology  Free Will .free will and determinism aren’t mutually exclusive  Our genes and environment limit our behavioural choices. but we may still freely select or reject certain options P-24 .Determinism: to what extent are our behaviours freely selected rather than caused by factors outside of our control? – – Some psychologists argue most behaviours are generated automatically.

. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc.Is Free Will Imaginary? Our brain readies itself before we become aware.

assert that the mind is the brain and nervous system in action Mind-body dualists .the mind is more than the brain and nervous system (Descartes) Impossible to resolve scientifically P-26 .include scientific psychologists.The Great Debates of Psychology  Mind . like a soul? – – – Mind-body monists .Body Debate: Are our behaviours due entirely to the actions of our nervous system or are they also due to the action of another entity.

Apply Your Thinking   Thinking of the mind .body debate. P-27 . what is wrong with distinguishing between organic (known brain basis) versus psychogenic (no known brain basis) amnesia? The term psychogenic implies that the amnesia is caused by ‘psyche’ that is separate from the brain.

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