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Computer and Information Technology for (HKCEE) Module A2

9.1Solving Programming Problems


9.2 Solving the Same Problem Using
Different Algorithms
Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module A2: Part C

9.1 Solving Programming Problems


Steps of solving programming problems
Specify a problem
Formulate an algorithm for the problem
Realise the algorithm into a program

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module A2: Part C

9.1 Solving Programming Problems


Case Study 1
Problem definition:
Input the ages which are less than 12
Calculate and print the average age
First-level pseudocode
1. Get input
2. Record number input
3. Perform computations
4. Display result in a real number
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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module A2: Part C

9.1 Solving Programming Problems


Second-level pseudocode
1. Get data
1.1 Input data value <12
2. Record number input
3. Perform computations
3.1 Sum up input value
3.2 Average the sum obtained
4. Display result in a real number

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module A2: Part C

9.1 Solving Programming Problems


Structural chart for finding the average age

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module A2: Part C

9.1 Solving Programming Problems


Case Study 2
Problem definition:
Calculate the future value using the formula
future value
= loan * (1 + interest rate) ^ number of year
First-level pseudocode
1. Get data
2. Perform computations
3. Display results in two decimal places

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module A2: Part C

9.1 Solving Programming Problems


Second-level pseudocode
1. Get data
1.1 Get loan
1.2 Get number of year
2. Perform computations
2.1 future value
= loan * (1+interest rate) ^ number of year
3. Display results in two decimal places

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module A2: Part C

9.1 Solving Programming Problems


Structural chart for finding the future value

© Longman Hong Kong Education Page8


Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module A2: Part C

9.1 Solving Programming Problems


Case Study 3
Problem definitions:
Convert a line of letters into cryptograms based
upon:
Letter from A to N:
new_letter := chr(ord(‘original_letter’) – 15);
Letter from O to Z:
new_letter := chr(ord(‘original_letter’) + 30);

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module A2: Part C

9.1 Solving Programming Problems


Algorithm development
1. Get data
2. Perform encryption
3. Display cryptogram

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module A2: Part C

9.1 Solving Programming Problems


Structural chart for finding the future value

© Longman Hong Kong Education Page11


Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module A2: Part C

9.2 Solving the Same Problem


Using Different Algorithms
Guidelines of choosing the best algorithms
easy to understand the algorithm, program it and
debug it
minimize the programming effort
apply on the computer resources efficiently (time &
space)

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module A2: Part C

9.2 Solving the Same Problem


Using Different Algorithms
Case Study 4
Problem definition
Find and print the maximum and the minimum
values of 10 positive integers.

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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module A2: Part C

9.2 Solving the Same Problem


Using Different Algorithms
Algorithm 1
1. Set both search keys for the maximum and the
minimum to zero.
2. Compare the search key with the other items one-by-
one and replace the value of the search key with that
of the item if the value of the item is larger.
3. Compare the search key with the other items one-by-
one and replace the value of the search key with that
of the item if the value of the item is smaller.
4. Display both search keys.
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Computer and Information
Technology for (HKCEE)
Module A2: Part C

9.2 Solving the Same Problem


Using Different Algorithms
Algorithm 2
1. Sort the list of items in ascending order.
2. Display the values of the first and the last items.

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Computer and Information Technology for (HKCEE) Module A2

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