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Questions: What does it mean to say that two variables are associated with one another? How can we mathematically formalize the concept of association?

Limitation of covariance

• One limitation of the covariance is that the size of the covariance depends on the variability of the variables. • As a consequence, it can be difficult to evaluate the magnitude of the covariation between two variables. – If the amount of variability is small, then the highest possible value of the covariance will also be small. If there is a large amount of variability, the maximum covariance can be large.

Limitations of covariance

• Ideally, we would like to evaluate the magnitude of the covariance relative to maximum possible covariance • How can we determine the maximum possible covariance?

**Go vary with yourself
**

• Let’s first note that, of all the variables a variable may covary with, it will covary with itself most strongly • In fact, the “covariance of a variable with itself” is an alternative way to define variance:

∑ ( X − M )( X − M ) = cov

X X

N

X

XX

∑( X − M )

N

2

= cov XX = varX

**Go vary with yourself
**

• Thus, if we were to divide the covariance of a variable with itself by the variance of the variable, we would obtain a value of 1. This will give us a standard for evaluating the magnitude of the covariance.

∑ ( X − M )( X − M )

X X

Ns X s X

Note: I’ve written the variance of X as sX × sX because the variance is the SD squared

**Go vary with yourself
**

• However, we are interested in evaluating the covariance of a variable with another variable (not with itself), so we must derive a maximum possible covariance for these situations too. • By extension, the covariance between two variables cannot be any greater than the product of the SD’s for the two variables. • Thus, if we divide by sxsy, we can evaluate the magnitude of the covariance relative to 1.

∑ ( X − M )(Y − M )

X Y

Ns X sY

**Spine-tingling moment
**

• Important: What we’ve done is taken the covariance and “standardized” it. It will never be greater than 1 (or smaller than –1). The larger the absolute value of this index, the stronger the association between two variables.

**Spine-tingling moment
**

• When expressed this way, the covariance is called a correlation • The correlation is defined as a standardized covariance.

∑ ( X − M )(Y − M ) = r

X Y

Ns X sY

Correlation

∑z

X

zY

N

=r

• It can also be defined as the average product of zscores because the two equations are identical. • The correlation, r, is a quantitative index of the association between two variables. It is the average of the products of the z-scores. • When this average is positive, there is a positive correlation; when negative, a negative correlation

• Mean of each variable is zero • A, D, & B are above the mean on both variables • E & C are below the mean on both variables • F is above the mean on x, but below the mean on y

−×+=−

+×+=+

−×−=+

+×−=−

Correlation

∑z

∑z

N

x

z y = 4.49

= .75

x

zy

Correlation

• The value of r can range between -1 and + 1. • If r = 0, then there is no correlation between the two variables. • If r = 1 (or -1), then there is a perfect positive (or negative) relationship between the two variables.

r=+1

r=-1

r=0

Correlation

• The absolute size of the correlation corresponds to the magnitude or strength of the relationship • When a correlation is strong (e.g., r = .90), then people above the mean on x are substantially more likely to be above the mean on y than they would be if the correlation was weak (e.g., r = .10).

r=+1

r = + .70

r = + .30

Correlation

• Advantages and uses of the correlation coefficient – Provides an easy way to quantify the association between two variables – Employs z-scores, so the variances of each variable are standardized & = 1 – Foundation for many statistical applications

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