1

2
1) Graphical presentation of structural data sets
(Stereonets, Rose diagrams)
2) Statistics of orientation data
3) Analysis of palaeostress data
4) Fold shape analysis
This programme was developed to be used for
the following methods of structural geology:

5) Strain analysis
6) Structural maps
3
Graphical Presentation
of Orientation Data
4
Two-Dimensional Data:
Rose Diagrams
Block Rose
(Data from the digital elevation model of the Bushveld)
Star Rose Rose with over-
lapping Sectors
5
Rose Diagrams with overlapping
Sectors from the Bushveld
(Digital elevation model)
6
Methods of measuring structural
data (planes and lineations)
40°
30°
30/40 SE
Strike, dip and
dip direction
120/40
Dip-direction
and angle of dip
7
1. StereographicProjection
8
Equal Angle Projection
Characteristics:
Angles on the
globe
are the same as
angles in the
projection
This net is called
„WULFF NET“
Equal areas on the
globe have diffrent
sizes in the projection
9
Lambert‘s Projection
o
10
Equal Area Projection
Characteristics:
Angles in the projection
are different from those
on the globe.
Same areas on the
globe are also same
areas in the projection
This net is called
„Schmidt Net“
11
How to project planes
Intersection between
Globe and plane
(great circle)
Projectd great circle
Stereographic projection
Zenith
Projection plane
12
Projection
of a plane
Normal to the
plane
Normal to the
Plane:

o
N
= o + 180

¢
N
= 90 ÷ ¢


13
Presentation of Data in the Equal Area
Projection
Rustenburg Nature Reserve,
Bedding Poles
Rustenburg Nature Reserve,
Bedding Planes
14
Contouring Methods
15
Data Set of 30 Linears
16
Overlay of Counting Grid and Data
17
Counting
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
2
1
1
3
1
0
0
0
1
2
0 3
4 3 1
8
7
6
1
4 9 7 1
1
The number of data
in each calotte is
counted
18
Contour Lines
19
The Distance Method
(Scalar Product Method)
pixel
data
¸
2 1
cos
v v
d
 
·
=
¸
¸
1
1
= v

1
2
= v

Scalar product:
pixel data
¿
=
=
n
j
j i
d
1
cos¸
On the i-th pixel we receive:
20
Contour Diagrams
Synopsis of bedding poles of the Bushveld
Contour Lines
(Schmidt Method)
Scalar Product Method
(fixed margins)
Scalar Product Method
(floating margins)
21
Statistics of Orientation Data
22
The mean direction can be derived from the vector sum of all data.
¿
=
n
i
i
v
1

(n = number of data)

Example:
The mean direction of the directions 340°, 20°, 60° is 20°
The arithmetic mean is:
(340 + 20 + 60) / 3 = 140
340 20
60
This is obviously wrong.
Statistical measures of orientation data can only be found by
application of vector algebra.
It is not possible to apply linear statistics to orientation data.
23
What is the difference between orientation data and other structural data?
1 =
i
v

1) Most of them have no magnitudes, i.e. they are unit vectors:
This type of orientation data can be described as bipolar unit
vectors, or unit axes:
1 , = v v
 
2) Most of them (bedding, schistosity, lineations) have no polarity!


24
with ¦v ¦= 1 we get:
Vx = cos o - cos ¢
Vy = sin o - cos ¢
Vz = sin ¢
Transformation of o/¢ into Cartesian
Coordinates (v
x
, v
y
, v
z
)
c= cos¢
N
E
x
y
z
o
¢
c
x N
y E
z down
25
Measures Derived from Addition of Vectors (Orientation Data):
The vector sum:
2
1
2
1
2
1 1
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
= =
¿ ¿ ¿ ¿
n n
i
n
i
n
i
z y x v R


The normalized vector sum:
n
R
R

=
Azimuth and dip of the centre of gravity:
¿
=
n
i R
x
R
x
1
1

¿
=
n
i R
y
R
y
1
1

¿
=
n
i R
z
R
z
1
1

R
R
S
x
y
o arctan
=
R
z arcsin
= ¢
S
R
R
S



=
The centre of gravity:
The resultant length vector:
¿
=
n
i
v R
1


1
v
2
v
26
Mode
Centre
Of Gravity
Skewness
Centre of Gravity vs. Mode
27
Vector sums of orientation data:
If the data were real vectors with polarity, then they would show max.
isotropy in a random distribution.
0
1
=
¿
=
n
i
i
v

and max. anisotropy in a parallel orientation:
n v
n
i
i
=
¿
=1

28
Problems of axial data:
If the angle between two lineations is > 90°,
the reverse direction must be added.
>90°
1
v
2
v
1
v
2
v ÷
<90°
Structural data, like fold axes or poles to planes, have no polarity.
They are not unipolar vectors, but bipolar axes.
29
Flow diagram for the vector addition of axial
data:
30
What is the vector sum of axial data?
In case of max. anisotropy (parallel orientation) the sum will equal to the
number of data, but what is the minimum (max. isotropy)?
It can be shown that the vector sum of a random distribution of axial
data is:
2
1
n
v
n
i
i
=
¿
=

We conclude that the vector sum of any axial data must be within the
limits:
n R
n
s s

2
31
From these limits a measure for the

Degree of Preferred
Orientation (R%)

can be found:
100
2
%
n
n R
R
÷
=

32
Distributions:
The Spherical Normal Distribution (unimodal distribution)
Fisher Distribution (Fisher, 1953)
{ } k z y x F , , ,
0 0 0
Concentration Parameter (k):

R n
n
k

÷
÷
=
1
ˆ
· s s k
ˆ
0 Watson, 1966
For axial data:
· s s k
ˆ
2
Wallbrecher, 1978
33
Probability Measures:
The Cone of Confidence:
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ =
÷
1
1
1 arccos
1
1
n
P
R
R n


0
P is the level of error
(0.01, 0.05 or 0.1 are common levels,
they equal 1%, 5% or 10% of error)
34
The Cone of Confidence
99%
95%
35
For large numbers of data:
k
ˆ
2
arcsin ~ e
Is there a geometric equivalent of the concentration parameter?
100 cos
2
%
· = e R
Isotropic distribution in
a small circle with apical
angle e
k
n
ˆ
1
1
2 arcsin
÷
= e
we derive the spheric aperture
From this and
R n
n
k

÷
÷
=
1
ˆ
100
2
%
n
n R
R
÷
=

and
36
1. Degree of Preferred
Orientation (R%):
100
2
%
n
n R
R
÷
=

Statistical parameters:
R n
n
k

÷
÷
=
1
ˆ
2. Concentration Parameter:

3. Spheric aperture:
k
n
ˆ
1
1
2 arcsin
÷
= e
4. Cone of Confidence:
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ =
÷
1
1
1 arccos
1
1
n
P
R
R n


0
37
Examples for Spherical Aperture and Cone of
Confidence
Yellow: Spherical aperture
Green: Cone of confidence
Confidence = 99%
38
Common Distributions
Cluster Distribution
(Poles to Bedding)
Girdle Distribution
(Parallel Folds)
Two Cluster
Distribution
(Chevron Folds)
Small Circle (Conical)
Distribution
(Refolded Folds, Diapirs,
Quartz-<c>-Axes)
Cross Girdle
Distribution
(Quartz-<c>-Axes)
39
Axes of Inertia:
cluster distribution:
great circle distribution:
partial great circle:
A
max
, A
medium
and A
min
are the principal axes
of the inertia matrix (Lagrange). They are the
eigenvectors of this matrix.
40
Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
Eigenvalue = 1
(no change of length
in horizontal direction)
Eigenvector (ì)
of transformation
(
¸
(

¸

=
1 0
1 ¸
A
Transformation
Matrix
x
y
(x,y)
x‘ = 1 x + ¸ y
y‘ = 0 x + 1 y
Transformation
¸ = tan ¢
y
x
x ¸y
(x’,y’)
y
¢
41
Calculation of Eigenvalues
Transformation-
Matrix:
The set of eigenvectors (x) of A are those vectors
which multiplied with A result only in a scaling
of A.
Ax = ìx
(
¸
(

¸

=
1
1
I
( ) 0 = ÷ x I A ì
Identity matrix
0
0
0
1 0
1
det =
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
¸
(

¸

ì
ì ¸
( ) 0 1
2
= ÷ ÷ ì
(
¸
(

¸

=
1 0
1 ¸
A
ì=1
Eigenvalue:
42
Calculation of Eigenvectors
0
1 0
1
2
1
=
(
¸
(

¸

·
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
x
x
ì
¸ ì
With ì = 1 we receive:
0
0 0
0
2
1
=
(
¸
(

¸

·
(
¸
(

¸

x
x ¸
(
¸
(

¸

= ÷
0
c
x

43
The Orientation Matrix (Tensor) and it´s Eigenvalues:
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
¿ ¿ ¿
¿ ¿
¿
2
1 1 1
2
1 1
2
1
n
i
n
i i
n
i i
n
i
n
i i
n
i
z z y z x
y y x
x
L
Orientation Tensor
Eigenvalues:
n = + +
3 2 1
ì ì ì
normalized:
1
3 2 1
= + + ì ì ì
Eigenvectors:
3 2 1
ì ì ì
  
± ± min 3
2
max 1
A
A
A
medium
~
~
~
ì
ì
ì



44
Orientation Ellipsoid








1
ì

2
ì

3
ì

1
ì

2
ì

3
ì

3 2 1
ì ì ì
  
s s
45
Eigenvectors of a Cluster Distribution
Spherical Aperture
Cone of Confidence
Eigenvectors
(length indicates
size of eigenvalues.
Sum equals the radius
of the diagram.)
46
The Eigenvalues of Cluster-Distributions
e ì
e ì ì
2
3
2
2 1
sin
3
2
1
sin
3
1
÷ =
= =
e
e
e
e
47
Eigenvectors of a Great Circle Distribution
Eigenvectors
(length indicates
size of eigenvalues.
Sum equals the radius
of the diagram.
48

2
sin
2
1
2
2
o
ì =
the circular aperture (o):
2
2 arcsin 2 ì o =
From this we derive a measure
for the length of a partial great
circle. We call this measure
Eigenvalues of Partial Great Circles
49
Examples from the Bushveld
50
The Woodcock Diagram
) / ln(
) / ln(
1 2
2 3
ì ì
ì ì
= m
Cluster:
1 < m <
8

Umgezeichnet nach Woodcock, 1977
Girdle:
0 < m < 1
) / ln(
) / ln(
arctan ] [
2 3
1 2
%
ì ì
ì ì
¸ = = Gon G
Cylindricity:
51
Woodcock Diagram
Crocodile R. Dome (Bedding)
Crocodile R. Dome (F2)
Olifant (Bedding)
Rustenburg (Bedding)
Crocodile R. Dome (F1)
Crocodile R. Dome
F
1
F
2
Bedding
Rustenburg Fault
(Bedding)
Olifant Nature Reserve
52
Vollmer Diagram
Sagalla Hills East Galana Taita Hills Galana Shearzone
Crocodile R. Dome (Bedding)
Crocodile R. Dome (F1)
Rustenburg (Bedding)
Olifant (Bedding)
Crocodile R.
Dome (F2)
Crocodile R. Dome
F
1
F
2
Bedding
Rustenburg Fault
(Bedding)
Olifant Nature Reserve
53
Woodcock Diagram of Bedding of Bushveld
2426
2428
2528
2526
2430
2328
2330
2524
2530
2628
54
Vollmer Diagram of Bedding of Bushveld
2524
2426
2526
2428 2528
2430
2530
2328 2330
2628
55
Significant Distributions
Redrawn after Woodcock & Naylor, 1983
56
Non-Random Distribution
57
Eigenvalues and –vectors of Typical Distributions
Sphere
3
1
3 2 1
= = = ì ì ì
not
defined
Stretched
rotational
ellipsoid
(cigar)
3 2 1
ì ì ì s =
3
ì
in centre of
the cluster
and
2
ì
1
ì
not defined
Girdle
Distribution
rotational
Flat
ellipsoid
(Disc)
0
1
= ì
2
1
3 2
= = ì ì
3
ì
2
ì
1
ì
is the
B-axis
and
not
defined
2-Cluster
Distribution
Threeaxial
ellipsoid 3 2 1
ì ì ì = =
3
ì
2
ì
1
ì
and
the great circle
through both
clusters;
is
the pole
on
isotropic,
Random
Distribution
58
Submaxima in a data set
Are they signifi-
cantly separated?
Cluster I
Cluster II
Crocodile River Dome F2
59
Cluster Finding
test angle = 10°
60
Three Clusters Found
test angle = 20°, multiples of random = 2
61
Crocodile R. Dome, F2
Multiple of random = 1 Multiple of random = 6
62
Paleostress Data
The aim of paleostress analysis is to reconstruct
the stress ellipsoid and it's orientation in space
which existed during a mountain building process.
63
Displacement Data
fault plane
(slickenside)
striaton
Displacement data:
1) azimuth and dip of
the fault
2) azimuth and dip of
the striation
3) polarity of striation
fault
plane
striation
polarity
From the orientation of the slickenside
striations we receive the direction of the
maximum resolved shear stress (MRSS).
64
Displacement systems
normal fault reverse fault
dextral
strike slip fault
sinistral
strike slip fault
65
Presentation of Displacement Data
66
How can we find a palaeostress
tensor from these data?
= =
+ · = D I S o
o o o o
o o o
o o
o
o
o
o o o
o o
o
÷
÷
÷
+ = =
33 23 13
22 12
11
33 23 13
22 12
11
0 0
0 S
complete
stress tensor
hydrostatic
part
deviatoric part
D
=
MRSS
Lithostatic load o
67
Without further assumptions
only a "reduced stress tensor"
can be derived from field
observations
The reduced stress tensor consists of 4 components:
The directions of the three principal stresses o
1
, o
2
, o
3,
and a shape factor of the stress ellipsoid (R).
3 1
3 2
o o
o o
 
 
÷
÷
= R
68
Focal Plane Analysis of Sumatra-
Earthquakes
69
The Dihedra
Method
The projection globe is
divided in
compressional and
extensional dihedra
Tension
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
o
n
Slickenside-
stria
F
a
u
l
t
fault plane
slickenside striations
Find the directions
of principal stresses
70
Combination of Data from 2 Faults
Fault 1
compression
compression
+
Fault 2
=
100%
compression
o
1
lies in the
intersection
of compressional
dihedra
71
Computer Diagram of Paleostress
Principal
stress
directions
72
Other Counting Methods
Scalar Product with fixed margins
Scalar product with floating margins
73
Stress Fields in the Southern Bohemian Massiv
Convergence
74
Displacement Data from Pretoria
Tom Jenkings Drive
75
Displacement Data in a
Hoeppener Diagram
76
The Shape Factor of the Stress Ellipsoid
3 1
3 2
o o
o o
 
 
÷
÷
= R
1
0
1 2
3 2
= ÷ =
= ÷ =
R
R
o o
o o
 
 
unscaled
Mohr circles
77
Relation between the Shape
Factor (R) and the MRSS
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷ = O
R
n
m
lm
n
2
2
1
tan
Bott's formula:
l, m, n = direction cosines of the normal
to the slickenside plane
78
Hoeppener Diagrams for Theoretical Striation Patterns

R = 0.0
R = 0.2 R = 0.4
R = 0.6
R = 0.8
R = 1.0
These lines are the trajectories for MRSS directions
79
Theoretical Striation Patterns on an Even Distribution
of 315 Slickenside Planes
R = 0.0
R = 0.2 R = 0.4
R = 0.6 R = 0.8 R = 1.0
80
Estimation of the Shape Factor (R)
0-10: eigenvalues of theoretical
striations on the measured fault
planes.
Red dot: eigenvalues of
the measured striations
81
Plot of a Hoeppener Diagram
Poles to faults,
displacement directions
Principal paleostresses
and slip trajectories
82
Fold Shape Analysis
1) Isogons
83
Construction of Isogons

0
°
2
0
°
2
0
°
4
0
°
4
0
°
84
Dip Isogons
strongly
convergent
gently
convergent
parallel
(similar fold)
divergent
convergent
(parallel fold)
85
Import of a Bitmap
86
Draw Dip Isogons
87
Fold Shape Analysis
2)The Ramsay-Classification of
Folds
88
Fold Shapes and Isogons
strongly
convergent
class 1A
gently
convergent
class1C
parallel
(similar fold)
class 2
divergent
class 3
convergent
(parallel fold)
class 1B
o
d/T
0
Class 1A
Class 1B
Class 1C
Class 3
89
1. Import of a Bitmap
90
Rotating of the Bitmap
91
3. Draw Isogons
92
4. Plot the Graph
93
Fold Shape Analysis
3) Fourier Analysis
94
Comparison with Harmonic Waves
Classification with Fourier coefficients:
Assuming the fold is part of a harmonic wave,
this wave can be described by superimposed sinus-
and cosinus waves.
f (ab) = a
0
+ a
1
coso + a
2
cos2o + a
3
cos3o +…
+ b
1
sino + b
2
sin2o + b
3
sin3o +…
95
Reduction of Coefficients
1.) In natural folds we can always put the origin of the
coordinate sytem at an inflection point of the folds,
i.e. a
0
= 0
and a
1
coso + a
2
cos2o + a
3
cos3o +…. = 0
2.) For a complete discription of the shape we need only
a quarter fold. That means all even coefficients
become 0.
The remaining coefficients are:
b
1
, b
3
, b
5
,……
b
5
and higher are so small that they can be neglected.
96
Addition of b
1
and -b
3
b
1
sin o
-b
3
sin3o
b
1
sino
+b
3
sin3o
– b
3
: chevron folds
97
Addition b
1
+ b
3
b
1
sin o
b
3
sin3o
b
1
sin o
+ b
3
sin3o
+b
3
: box folds
98
Determination of b
1
and b
3
from a
Quarter Fold
99
b
1
/b
3
-Diagram
box
folds
sinus
folds
chevron
folds
amplitude
100
Strain Analysis
101
Aniso-
tropic
Distri-
bution.
Isotropic Distribution
Nearest Neighbours
102
Fry Method
All centre-points are plotted on a sheet of paper (A).
A point is drawn on a transparent overlay (B).
This point is centered at all points, and each time all other points are copied on
the overlay (C).
The result is an elliptical area which does not contain any point. Shape and
orientation of this empty area resembles the strain ellipse.
All centre-points are plotted on a sheet of paper (A).
A point is drawn on a transparent overlay (B).
This point is centered at all points, and each time all other points are copied on
the overlay (C).
The result is an elliptical area which does not contain any point. Shape and
orientation of this empty area resembles the strain ellipse.
All centre points are plotted on a sheet of paper (A).
A point is drawn on a transparent overlay (B).
This point is centered at all points, and each time all other points are copied on
the overlay (C).
The result is an elliptical area which does not contain any point. Shape and
orientation of this empty area resembles the strain ellipse.
103
Examples for the Fry Method
Photomicrograph of deformed ooids
From Ramsay & Huber 1987
104
Fry Method (continued)
Mark the centres of the ooids
105
Fry Method (Result)
Done with Fabric7 software (Wallbrecher 2006)
106
Projection Method (Panozzo 1984)
107
Example
108
Drawing of Polygons and their Centres
109
Evaluation
Ellipticity = 1.30
O = 141°
110
The Rf/Phi-Method (Lisle 1985)
Deformation analysis
with elliptical markers
111
The finite ellipticity of each pebble (Rf) results
from the initial ellipticity (Ri) and deformation
The ellipticity of the strain ellipse
is calulated.
112
Evaluation
Click on the ends
of a long diameter
of a pebble
Then on the ends
of the short diameter
113
Rf/Phi-Diagram
_
2
÷Test
114
The newest version of the program
can be downloaded from

www.geolsoft.com

Thank you very much for your attention!

This programme was developed to be used for the following methods of structural geology:
1) Graphical presentation of structural data sets (Stereonets, Rose diagrams) 2) Statistics of orientation data 3) Analysis of palaeostress data 4) Fold shape analysis 5) Strain analysis 6) Structural maps
2

Graphical Presentation of Orientation Data

3

Two-Dimensional Data: Rose Diagrams (Data from the digital elevation model of the Bushveld) Block Rose Star Rose Rose with overlapping Sectors 4 .

Rose Diagrams with overlapping Sectors from the Bushveld (Digital elevation model) 5 .

Methods of measuring structural data (planes and lineations) 30° 30/40 S E 40° Strike. dip and dip direction 120/40 Dip-direction and angle of dip 6 .

1. StereographicProjection 7 .

Equal Angle Projection Characteristics: Equal areas on the globe have diffrent sizes in the projection Angles on the globe are the same as angles in the projection This net is called „WULFF NET“ 8 .

Lambert‘s Projection a 9 .

Same areas on the globe are also same areas in the projection This net is called „Schmidt Net“ 10 .Equal Area Projection Characteristics: Angles in the projection are different from those on the globe.

How to project planes Zenith Projectd great circle Projection plane Intersection between Globe and plane (great circle) Stereographic projection 11 .

Projection of a plane Normal to the Plane: Normal to the plane aN = a + 180 jN = 90 .j 12 .

Bedding Poles Rustenburg Nature Reserve.Presentation of Data in the Equal Area Projection Rustenburg Nature Reserve. Bedding Planes 13 .

Contouring Methods 14 .

Data Set of 30 Linears 15 .

Overlay of Counting Grid and Data 16 .

Counting 0 1 0 3 0 0 8 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 The number of data in each calotte is counted 0 0 1 0 0 4 8 0 2 3 3 7 4 0 0 0 1 6 9 0 0 1 7 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 17 .

Contour Lines 18 .

The Distance Method (Scalar Product Method)  v1 = 1 pixel   v2 = 1 data pixel  data cos  Scalar product: d =   v1  v2 On the i-th pixel we receive: d i =  cos  j j =1 19 n .

Contour Diagrams Synopsis of bedding poles of the Bushveld Contour Lines (Schmidt Method) Scalar Product Method Scalar Product Method (fixed margins) (floating margins) 20 .

Statistics of Orientation Data 21 .

Example: The mean direction of the directions 340°. 20°. Statistical measures of orientation data can only be found by application of vector algebra.   vi n i =1 (n = number of data) 22 .It is not possible to apply linear statistics to orientation data. The mean direction can be derived from the vector sum of all data. 60° is 20° 20 340 The arithmetic mean is: 60 (340 + 20 + 60) / 3 = 140 This is obviously wrong.

What is the difference between orientation data and other structural data?

1) Most of them have no magnitudes, i.e. they are unit vectors:

 vi = 1

2) Most of them (bedding, schistosity, lineations) have no polarity!

This type of orientation data can be described as bipolar unit vectors, or unit axes:

  v, v = 1

23

Transformation of a/j into Cartesian Coordinates (vx, vy, vz)
N
x

a

x N y E z down
c

c= cosj
with v = 1 we get:

j
y

Vx = cos a  cos j

E

Vy = sin a  cos j Vz = sin j

z

24

Measures Derived from Addition of Vectors (Orientation Data): The resultant length vector: The vector sum:
 R=
n

n   R =  vi 1
2

v1
v2
2 2

  n   n   n   vi =   xi  +   yi  +   z  1  1   1   1 

The normalized vector sum:

R=

 R n

The centre of gravity:

  R S=  R

Azimuth and dip of the centre of gravity:
1 xR =  R

 xi
1

n

1 yR =  R

y
1

n

i

1 zR =  R

z
1

n

aS = arctan
i

yR xR
25

jS= arcsin z R

Centre of Gravity vs. Mode Skewness Centre Of Gravity Mode 26 .

then they would show max. isotropy in a random distribution.   vi = 0 n i =1 and max.Vector sums of orientation data: If the data were real vectors with polarity. anisotropy in a parallel orientation:   vi = n n i =1 27 .

28 . They are not unipolar vectors. the reverse direction must be added.Problems of axial data: Structural data. have no polarity.v2 <90° v2 >90° v1 If the angle between two lineations is > 90°. like fold axes or poles to planes. but bipolar axes. .

Flow diagram for the vector addition of axial data: 29 .

isotropy)? It can be shown that the vector sum of a random distribution of axial data is: n  n  vi = 2 i =1 We conclude that the vector sum of any axial data must be within the limits:  n  R n 2 30 . but what is the minimum (max. anisotropy (parallel orientation) the sum will equal to the number of data.What is the vector sum of axial data? In case of max.

From these limits a measure for the Degree of Preferred Orientation (R%) can be found: R% =  2R -n n 100 31 .

1966 ˆ 2k  Wallbrecher. y 0 . 1978 32 . z 0 . 1953) F x 0 . k  Concentration Parameter (k): ˆ = n -1 ˆ k  0k  n.Distributions: The Spherical Normal Distribution (unimodal distribution) Fisher Distribution (Fisher.R For axial data: Watson.

1 are common levels. they equal 1%. 0.Probability Measures: The Cone of Confidence:  1  n.05 or 0. 5% or 10% of error) 33 .   .01.R     1  n-1    = arccos1 .1   R  P      P is the level of error (0.

The Cone of Confidence 99% 95% 34 .

1 and R% =  From this and k n.R  2R -n n 100 1 1n we derive the spheric aperture  = arcsin 2 ˆ k For large numbers of data: 2   arcsin ˆ k 35 .Is there a geometric equivalent of the concentration parameter? Isotropic distribution in a small circle with apical angle  R% = cos  100 2 ˆ = n .

Degree of Preferred Orientation (R%): 2.1   P     36 . R   1    1  n-1     .R   = arccos1 . Concentration Parameter: R% =  2R -n n 100 n -1 ˆ k=  n. Spheric aperture:  = arcsin 2 1ˆ k 1 n 4. Cone of Confidence:   n.Statistical parameters: 1.R 3.

Examples for Spherical Aperture and Cone of Confidence Confidence = 99% Yellow: Spherical aperture Green: Cone of confidence 37 .

Diapirs.Common Distributions Cluster Distribution (Poles to Bedding) Small Circle (Conical) Distribution (Refolded Folds. Quartz-<c>-Axes) Cross Girdle Distribution (Quartz-<c>-Axes) Girdle Distribution (Parallel Folds) Two Cluster Distribution (Chevron Folds) 38 .

Amedium and Amin are the principal axes of the inertia matrix (Lagrange). 39 .Axes of Inertia: cluster distribution: great circle distribution: partial great circle: Amax. They are the eigenvectors of this matrix.

y’) x y x‘ = 1 x +  y y‘ = 0 x + 1 y Transformation Matrix 1   A=  0 1  Eigenvalue = 1 (no change of length in horizontal direction) 40 .Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors Transformation  = tan y y x (x.y) y y y x Eigenvector (l) of transformation (x’.

lI )x = 0 1  I = 1   2 Identity matrix  1   l 0   det   .Calculation of Eigenvalues TransformationMatrix: 1   A=  0 1  The set of eigenvectors (x) of A are those vectors which multiplied with A result only in a scaling of A.0 l   = 0  0 1       1 . Ax = lx  A .l ) = 0 Eigenvalue: l=1 41 .

l   = 0  0 1.Calculation of Eigenvectors    x1  1 .l x    2 With l = 1 we receive: 0    x1  0 0    x  = 0    2  c  x=  0 42 .

The Orientation Matrix (Tensor) and it´s Eigenvalues:  n  2   xi   1   n L =   xi y i  1  n   xi z i  1        2  n    zi    1    Orientation Tensor  n    yi   1  2 y z i 1 n i Eigenvalues:  l1 + l2 + l3 = n l  A 1 max normalized: Eigenvectors: l1l2 l3  l1 + l 2 + l3 = 1 l  A 2 medium     l3  Amin 43 .

Orientation Ellipsoid  l1 l1   l2    l1  l2  l3 l2  l3  l3  44 .

Sum equals the radius of the diagram.) Cone of Confidence 45 .Eigenvectors of a Cluster Distribution Spherical Aperture Eigenvectors (length indicates size of eigenvalues.

sin  3 46 .The Eigenvalues of Cluster-Distributions     1 2 l1 = l 2 = sin  3 2 2 l3 = 1 .

Eigenvectors of a Great Circle Distribution Eigenvectors (length indicates size of eigenvalues. 47 . Sum equals the radius of the diagram.

We call this measure the circular aperture (a): a = 2 arcsin 2l2 48 .Eigenvalues of Partial Great Circles 1 2a l2 = sin 2 2 From this we derive a measure for the length of a partial great circle.

Examples from the Bushveld 49 .

The Woodcock Diagram ln( l 3 / l 2 ) m= ln( l 2 / l1 ) Cluster: 1<m< Girdle: 0<m<1 Cylindricity: ln( l 2 / l1 ) G% =  [Gon ] = arctan ln( l3 50l 2 ) / Umgezeichnet nach Woodcock. 1977 8 .

Dome (Bedding) Olifant Nature Reserve 51 .Woodcock Diagram Crocodile R. Dome F2 F1 Crocodile R. Dome (F1) Crocodile R. Dome (F2) Bedding Rustenburg Fault (Bedding) Olifant (Bedding) Rustenburg (Bedding) Crocodile R.

Dome (F1) Olifant (Bedding) Galana Taita Hills Shearzone East Galana Sagalla Hills Bedding Rustenburg Fault (Bedding) Crocodile R. Dome (F2) Crocodile R. Dome Vollmer Diagram Rustenburg (Bedding) F2 F1 Crocodile R. Dome (Bedding) Olifant Nature Reserve 52 .Crocodile R.

Woodcock Diagram of Bedding of Bushveld 2430 2524 2526 2528 2628 2426 2428 2530 2328 2330 53 .

Vollmer Diagram of Bedding of Bushveld 2524 2430 2526 2528 2426 2628 2428 2530 2328 2330 54 .

Significant Distributions Redrawn after Woodcock & Naylor. 1983 55 .

Non-Random Distribution 56 .

Eigenvalues and –vectors of Typical Distributions isotropic.l1 57 the pole . Random Distribution Se pr he Stretched rotational ellipsoid (cigar) 1 l1 = l2 = l3 = 3 nt o d fn d ei e l3 in centre of the cluster l1 and l2 not defined l1 = l2  l3 1 l2 = l3 = 2 Girdle Distribution Flat rotational ellipsoid (Disc) T e ai l hex r a ei si lp d l o l1 = 0 B-axis l2 and l3not defined l1 is the 2-Cluster Distribution l1  l2  l3 l2 and l3 on the great circle through both is clusters.

Submaxima in a data set Cluster I Cluster II Are they significantly separated? Crocodile River Dome F2 58 .

Cluster Finding test angle = 10° 59 .

multiples of random = 2 60 .Three Clusters Found test angle = 20°.

Crocodile R. Dome. F2 Multiple of random = 1 Multiple of random = 6 61 .

Paleostress Data The aim of paleostress analysis is to reconstruct the stress ellipsoid and it's orientation in space which existed during a mountain building process. 62 .

Displacement Data fault plane (slickenside) striaton Displacement data: 1) azimuth and dip of the fault 2) azimuth and dip of the striation 3) polarity of striation fault plane From the orientation of the slickenside striations we receive the direction of the maximum resolved shear stress (MRSS). striation polarity 63 .

Displacement systems normal fault reverse fault dextral strike slip fault sinistral strike slip fault 64 .

Presentation of Displacement Data 65 .

How can we find a palaeostress tensor from these data?  11   11 . hydrostatic part = deviatoric part S = I + D Lithostatic load  D = MRSS 66 . S =  12  22 = 0  +  12  13  23  33 0 0   13 complete stress tensor =  22 .  23  33 .

Without further assumptions only a "reduced stress tensor" can be derived from field observations The reduced stress tensor consists of 4 components: The directions of the three principal stresses 1. 2 . 3 67   .3 R=   1 . and a shape factor of the stress ellipsoid (R). 3. 2.

Focal Plane Analysis of SumatraEarthquakes 68 .

Find the directions of principal stresses The Dihedra Method fault plane slickenside striations p om C on ssi re Tension Slickensidestria t a ul F The projection globe is divided in compressional and extensional dihedra 69 .

Combination of Data from 2 Faults compression + 100% compression compression Fault 1 Fault 2 = 1 lies in the intersection of compressional dihedra 70 .

Computer Diagram of Paleostress Principal stress directions 71 .

Other Counting Methods Scalar Product with fixed margins Scalar product with floating margins 72 .

Stress Fields in the Southern Bohemian Massiv Convergence 73 .

Displacement Data from Pretoria Tom Jenkings Drive 74 .

Displacement Data in a Hoeppener Diagram 75 .

 3   2 = 3  R = 0  2 = 1  R = 1     unscaled Mohr circles 76 .The Shape Factor of the Stress Ellipsoid 2 .3 R=   1 .

n  tan  = m  lm  R  2 l.Relation between the Shape Factor (R) and the MRSS Bott's formula: n  2 1. m. n = direction cosines of the normal to the slickenside plane 77 .

Hoeppener Diagrams for Theoretical Striation Patterns

R = 0.0

R = 0.2

R = 0.4

R = 0.6

R = 1.0 These lines are the trajectories for MRSS directions

R = 0.8

78

Theoretical Striation Patterns on an Even Distribution of 315 Slickenside Planes

R = 0.0

R = 0.2

R = 0.4

R = 0.6

R = 0.8

R = 1.0

79

Estimation of the Shape Factor (R)

0-10: eigenvalues of theoretical striations on the measured fault planes. Red dot: eigenvalues of the measured striations
80

Plot of a Hoeppener Diagram Poles to faults. displacement directions Principal paleostresses and slip trajectories 81 .

Fold Shape Analysis 1) Isogons 82 .

Construction of Isogons 20° 0° 2 0° 4 83 40° 0° 0° .

Dip Isogons strongly convergent convergent (parallel fold) gently convergent parallel (similar fold) divergent 84 .

Import of a Bitmap 85 .

Draw Dip Isogons 86 .

Fold Shape Analysis 2)The Ramsay-Classification of Folds 87 .

Fold Shapes and Isogons strongly convergent class 1A convergent (parallel fold) class 1B Class 1A gently convergent class1C d/T0 Class 1B Class 1C Class 3 parallel (similar fold) class 2 a divergent class 3 88 .

1. Import of a Bitmap 89 .

Rotating of the Bitmap 90 .

3. Draw Isogons 91 .

4. Plot the Graph 92 .

Fold Shape Analysis 3) Fourier Analysis 93 .

f (ab) = a0 + a1cosa + a2cos2a + a3cos3a +… + b1sina + b2sin2a + b3sin3a +… 94 .Comparison with Harmonic Waves Classification with Fourier coefficients: Assuming the fold is part of a harmonic wave. this wave can be described by superimposed sinusand cosinus waves.

95 .…… b5 and higher are so small that they can be neglected. = 0 2.) In natural folds we can always put the origin of the coordinate sytem at an inflection point of the folds. The remaining coefficients are: b1. a0 = 0 and a1cosa + a2cos2a + a3cos3a +…. That means all even coefficients become 0.Reduction of Coefficients 1.e. b3. b5. i.) For a complete discription of the shape we need only a quarter fold.

Addition of b1 and -b3 b1sina +b3sin3a b1sin a – b3 : chevron folds -b3sin3a 96 .

Addition b1 + b3 b1sin a b1sin a + b3sin3a +b3 : box folds b3sin3a 97 .

Determination of b1and b3 from a Quarter Fold 98 .

b1/b3-Diagram box folds chevron folds sinus folds amplitude 99 .

Strain Analysis 100 .

Nearest Neighbours Anisotropic Distribution. Isotropic Distribution 101 .

Shape and orientation of this empty area resembles the strain ellipse. This point is centered at all points. centre points A point is drawn on a transparent overlay (B). The result is an elliptical area which does not contain any point. A point is drawn on a transparent overlay (B). 102 . and each time all other points are copied on the overlay (C). the strain ellipse.Fry Method All centre-points are plotted on a sheet of paper (A).

Examples for the Fry Method Photomicrograph of deformed ooids From Ramsay & Huber 1987 103 .

Fry Method (continued) Mark the centres of the ooids 104 .

Fry Method (Result) 105 Done with Fabric7 software (Wallbrecher 2006) .

Projection Method (Panozzo 1984) 106 .

Example 107 .

Drawing of Polygons and their Centres 108 .

30  = 141° 109 .Evaluation Ellipticity = 1.

The Rf/Phi-Method (Lisle 1985) Deformation analysis with elliptical markers 110 .

The finite ellipticity of each pebble (Rf) results from the initial ellipticity (Ri) and deformation The ellipticity of the strain ellipse is calulated. 111 .

Evaluation Click on the ends of a long diameter of a pebble Then on the ends of the short diameter 112 .

Rf/Phi-Diagram c2-Test 113 .

geolsoft.The newest version of the program can be downloaded from www.com Thank you very much for your attention! 114 .

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