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PRESENTATION ON CONTROL AND COORDINATION

Made byKunal Tolani X-E

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ll the living organisms respond and react to changes in

the enviournment. The changes in the enviournment to which the organisms respond and react are called STIMULI. The living organisms show response to stimuli such as light, heat, cold, sound, smell, etc. The response of organisms to a stimuli is usually in the form of some movement of their body part. For eg, a man touches a very hot utensil accidently, he quickly pulls his hand away from the hard utensil. The reaction to stimuli is the characterstic property of the living organisms.. The working together of the various organisms in a systematic manner so as to produce a proper response to the stimulus , is called COORDINATION

The hormones in plants co-ordinate their behaviors by affecting the growth of a plant. The stimuli like light. so plants use only hormones for co-ordination. chemicals. or roots etc. It usually takes a considerable time to observe the effect of a stimulus on a plant. So in most of the cases. . water and touch are called environment changes. The function of control and co-ordination in plants is performed by chemical substances called PLANT HORMONES(PHYTO HORMONES). The plants responds to various stimuli very slowly by growing because plants have no nervous system. So plants co-ordinate their behaviour by using hormones. but they can still sense things. ears and nose etc. gravity. the response of a plant to the stimulus cannot be observed immediately. like animals. And the effect on the growth of the plant can result in the movement of a part of the plant like shoot (stem).CONTROL AND COORDINATION IN PLANTS The plants do not have nervous system and sense organs like eyes.

. fruit growth. cell enlargement. cell differentiation and 3. cell division. The plant hormones are also known as Plant Growth Substances. The growth of a plant can be divided into three stages: 1. stomata control.PLANT HORMONES(OR PHYTO HORMONES) The control and co-ordination in plants is done by plant hormones. 2. ripening of fruits and ageing in plants are controlled by various plant hormones. breaking of dormancy. These three stages of a plant growth as well as promotion of dormancy. falling of leaves.

They also promote fruit growth.These are the plant hormones which promote cell enlargement and cell differentiation in plants. Auxins is made by the cells at the tip of the stems and roots. AUXINS:. Auxins hormone controls a plant’s response to light and gravity. Auxins move away from light and towards gravity.There are four major types of plant hormones which are involved in control and co-ordination in plants. These are as follows: 1. Auxins has opposite effect on the growth .

These are the plant hormones which promote cell division in plants. 3.2. They promote the opening of stomata and also promote the growth of fruit. Gibberellins hormone is involved mainly in shoot extensions. CYTOKININS:. They delay the ageing in leaves. They also promote growth in fruits. GIBBERELLINS:- . They stimulates elongation of various plants. These are the plant hormones which promote Cell enlargement and Cell differentiation in the presence of auxins. Gibberellins help in breaking the seed dormancy and buds. Cytokinins also helps in breaking the dormancy of seed and buds.

4. Abscisic acid promotes the dormancy in the seed and buds (this is the opposite of breaking of dormancy). .ABSCISIC ACID:. Abscisic acid promotes the wilting and falling of leaves (which is also called abscission) it also causes the detachment of flowers and fruits from the plants. It also promotes the growth of stomata.These are the plant hormones which functions mainly as a growth inhibitor.

For example. So. the auxin hormone is made and secreted by the meristematic tissue at the tip of stem (or tip of shoot).PLANT MOVEMENTS These movements of the plant part are usually caused by an unequal growth in its two regions by the action of plant hormones. This movement (or bending) of the stem has been caused by its growth. the movement in any part of a plant is usually a growth movement. under the influence of stimulus. we can say that the bending of a stem (or shoot) is a growth movement. The plant movements is made in response to external stimuli fall into two main categories: Tropisms and nasties :- . In fact.

1.  The growth of a plant in response to stimulus can be towards the stimulus or away from stimulus due to which we can have a positive tropism or a negative tropism.  .TROPISMS(TROPIC MOVEMENT) A growth movement of a plant part in response to an external stimulus in which the direction of stimulus determines the direction of response is called TROPISM. Tropism is directional movement of the part of a plant caused by its growth.

the movement of a plant in response to gravity is called geotropism . GEOTROPISM:. if the plant part move away from the light. it is called positive phototropism.the movement of a plant part in response to light is called phototropism. it is called the negative phototropism.TYPES OF TROPISMS There are five types of tropism: 1.  2. PHOTOTROPISM:. On the other hand. If the plant move toward light.

If the plant moves towards water.CHEMOTROPISM :-the movement of a plant towards chemicals is called chemotropism. and if the plant moves away from the water. and if the plant moves away from the chemicals.  4.3. If the plant moves towards chemicals. it is called positive chemotropism.  . it is called the negative hydrotropism.HYDROTROPISM :-The movement of a plant in response to water is called hydrotropism. it is called positive hydrotropism.  THIGMOTROPISM:-The directional growth movement of a plant in response to touch of an organism is called thigmotropism. it is called negative chemotropism.

the folding up of the leaves of a sensitive plant on touching is not a growth movement but the opening and closing of petals of flowers by the action of sunlight is growth movement. .NASTIES(OR NASTIC MOVEMENTS) The movement of a plant in response to an external stimulus in which the direction of plant may or may not be towards the stimulus is called the NASTIC MOVEMENTS(OR NASTIES).2. The direction of nastic movements is not determined by the direction of the stimulus is applied.

.FUNCTIONS OF PLANT HORMONES ->Germination of seeds(or breaking of the seed dormancy) ->Growth of roots. stem. and leaves ->Movement of stomata(or stomatal movement) in leaves ->Flowering of plants ->Ripening of fruits.

heat. sound. pressure. taste. A system made up of nerve cells is called the NERVOUS SYSTEM. A receptor is a cell or group of cells in a sense organ which is sensitive to particular type of stimulus such as light. The control and coordination in higher animals is called vertebrates takes place through nervous system as well as hormonal system called endocrine system. There a 5 sense organs in our body. The sense organs contain receptors.COORDINATION IN ANIMALS The multicelluar animals have specialized cells called the NERVE CELLS. . smell.

process it. The nervous system also coordinates with the thing which we don’t have to think about like heart beats and breathing. Interprets it and respond quickly. .HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM The function of the nervous system is to coordinate the activities of our body. The nervous system helps all other system of our body to work together. The nervous system receives information from the surroundings.

The shorter fibres on the body of a neuron are called dendrites.THE UNIT OF NERVOUS SYSTEM: NEURON The cell body of a neuron is like a typical animal cell which contains cytoplasm and a nucleus. The longest fibres on the cell body of a neuron is called axon. . A number of long and thin fibres are stretching out from the cell body of a neuron. The dendrites pick up the nerve impulses from receptors. They are called nerve fibres. The axon has an insulating and protective sheets(or cover) of myelin around it(myelin is made of fat and protein). The messages which the neurons transmit in the nervous system are in the form of electrical impulses.

At the end of the axon . This impulse travels from the dendrite to the cell body. and start a similar electrical . the electrical impulse sets off the release of some chemicals. These chemicals cross the gap. There is always a very small gap between the two neurons. Any two neurons in the nervous system do not join to one another completely.They pass the impulses to the cell body and the along the axon. or synapse. The axon passes the impulse to another neuron through a junction called synapse. The nerve impulses are carried over this small gap between a pair of neurons by means of a chemical substance called neurotransmitter substances. and then along the axon to its end. The gap is called a synapse.

This is a general scheme of how nervous impulses travel in the body.Impulses in a dendrite of the next neuron. .

REFLEX ACTION AND REFLEX ARCS The simplest form of response in the nervous system is REFLEX ACTIONS. This is a rapid. It is a comparatively simple form of behavior in which the same stimulus produces the same response every time. Moving our hand away on touching a hot plate is an example of reflex actions. A reflex action is one which we perform automatically. automatic response to a stimulus which is not a under the voluntary control of the brain. .

RELEX ARC .

The pupils of our eyes get bigger in dim light so as to help us see properly even in dim light . coughing is a reflex action which clears our wind pipe. Nerves from all over the body meet in a bundle in the spinal cord on their way to the brain. The pupil of our eyes get smaller in bright light. This reflex action protects the retina of our eyes from damage due to too much light. although the information input also . Reflex arcs are formed in this spinal cord itself.For example. Reflex arcs allow rapid response. The pathway taken by nerve impulses in a reflex action is called the REFLEX ARC.

Even after complex neuron networks have come into existence. reflex arcs continue to be more efficient for a quick responses. Many animals have very little or none of the complex neuron network needed for the thinking. So it is quiet likely that reflects arcs have evolved as efficient ways of functioning in the absence of true thought process. Reflex arcs have evolved in animals because the thinking process of the brain is not fast enough.brain. .

All the voluntary actions of the body are coordinated by the cerebrum. The brain is located inside the skull of our body. which is the main thinking part of the brain. reasoning.THE HUMAN BRAIN BRAIN is the highest coordinating centre in the body.  .FOREBRAIN:-It consists mainly of cerebrum. All our thoughts. sensation. The brain is broadly divided into three regions which are as follows: 1. action. personality and memory. and movements are controlled by the cerebrum. It is the site of our faculties such as learning. It is protected by a bony box in the skull called CRANIUM. intelligence.

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neck and trunk in response to visual and auditory stimuli and also controls the reflex movements of eyes. Medulla controls involuntary actions such as heart beat. Cerebellum helps in maintaining the posture and balance of the body and also enables to make precise and accurate movements .HINDBRAIN:-IT consist of three centers called the pons. muscles.2. 3. It coordinates smooth movements such as walking. breathing etc. . change in pupil size and shape of the eye lens.MIDBRAIN:-It does not have the further divisions. It controls reflex movements of the head. bending. dancing etc. Pons take part in regulating respiration. cerebellum and medulla.

These hormones coordinate the activities of living organisms and their growth. They are of the following types:1.Pituary glands. Hormone secreted is the growth hormone  .HORMONES IN ANIMALS Hormones are chemical substances secreted in very small amounts by specialized tissue in the body called endocrine glands.:-it is situated in the brain. Hormones are made inside the body of an organisms in very small amounts.

Adernal glands:.Pineal glands:-located in the brain. 6.located in the neck region. Hormone secreted is the thyroxine. 9. .located below the stomach. Hormone secreted is thyroxine. Hormone secreted is testostrene. Hormone secreted is aderlaine. Hormone secreted is the parthorme.located in females. Hormone secreted is the melatonin.Pancreas:.Thyroid glands:.located just behind the thyroid glands. Hormone secreted is oestrogen.Thynus glands:-located near the heart. 4.located above the kidneys.Parathyroid glands:. 3.2. 5. Testes:-found only in male. 7.ovary:. 8. Hormone secreted is insulin.