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NATIONAL SOCIAL SECURITY SCHEMES

Birolal J , LCHR, AGARTALA

SOCIAL SECURITY CONCEPT
 In the primitive societies it was mankind’s prime

need to protect himself from the vagaries of nature like earthquakes, famines or even finding shelter and food in his day to day life.
 Societal groups were formed to confront and

brave such hazards which turned into community living and formation of villages and also bringing in the concept of a family. These institutions provided whatever limited social security those societies needed and served them adequately

Such arrangements were found grossly inadequate and it was felt the civil society as a whole or the State was required to play a major role in providing much needed respite to workers under such . These workers living around factories were mostly dependent upon their wages for subistenance and sustenance. The industrial revolution brought in its wake altogether a new set of needs for the workers. In the event these workers were rendered jobless because of accident. they were to live on their savings or from help from the fellow workers. injuries or sickness or may be their services were not required. They had left their villages and families to come and work in the factories.

old-age and invalidity benefits. 102 concerning Minimum Standards of Social Security in which provisions of medical care. sanitation. health.  The concept of social security has been further widened. employment injury benefit. unemployment benefit. so as to include provisions for housing. sickness benefits. family and maternity benefit. educational and cultural facilities as also a . In 1952 ILO adopted a comprehensive Convention No. safe drinking water.

That is why social security is taken linked to work or economic security. certain other basic elements of social protection are also essential towards work security. including maternity benefits (anti-natal and postnatal care). These are health care. In addition to income security. . socially relevant minimum wages should be guaranteed. Inadequate income resulting from unprotected and irregular employment. Therefore. Their income needs to be protected against the vagaries of economy. shelter and education. Social security comprises mainly two elements job/work and income securities. As important as the work security is income security. is a direct threat to their lives and families.

The workers must be given the wages and other services which will enable them and the members of their family to lead a decent life. The social security is an instrument for social transformation and good . Social security to the workers would involve providing or framing such schemes or services or facilities and amenities which can enable the workers to lead a decent minimum standard of life and having financial/economic security to fall back upon in the event of loosing job for whatsoever may be the reason in the circumstances beyond their control.

. 1948. the Employees Provident Funds and Other Miscellaneous Provisions Act. ignorance. maternity benefits. health care. 1952 and the Factories Act. which are available to the workers in the organised sector under the Employees State Insurance Act. The unorganised workers are also generally low paid and a majority of them are devoid of any of the social security benefits like life and medical insurance. and old age pension etc. invariably absence of definite employer-employee relationship.Security Schemes under Unorganized Sector  The unorganized sector workers are those who have not been able to pursue their common interests due to constraints like casual nature of employment. etc. 1948 etc. illiteracy.

. only 28 million workers are employed in the organized sector and remaining in the unorganized sector.Magnitude of Workforce in the Unorganized Sector The National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) carried out a sample survey in 19992000 and its results showed that out of total workforce of 397 million.

contract and casual labourers come under this category (iii) Specially distressed categories: Toddy tappers.Characteristics of Unorganised Sector The unorganized sector workers can be categorised broadly into four categories i. come under this category. share croppers. vegetable and fruit vendors. scavengers. etc (ii) Nature of Employment: Attached agricultural labourers. domestic workers. carriers of head loads. fishermen and women. barbers. bonded labourers migrant workers.e. newspapers vendors etc. loaders and unloaders belong to this category and (iv) Service categories: Midwives. in beedi rolling beedi labelling and beedi packing workers in building and construction. those engaged in animal husbandry. . drivers of animal driven vehicles. (i) Occupation: Small and marginal farmers. fishermen. landless agricultural labourers.

Centrally Funded Social Assistance/Employme nt Generation Schemes .

In addition to the central share.p. The amount of pension which was Rs. . per beneficiary till now has been increased to Rs 200/-p.National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS):  The Government has been implementing National Old Age Pension programmes for destitute persons of more than 60 years of age. some States by adding their own share give pension at the enhanced rates. 75/.m.m.

an amount of Rs. sharing the costs on 75:25 basis). 6. Up to November 2005 (the Centre and States.Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY).75 lakh selfemployed.  The objective of the scheme is to bring the self- employed persons above the poverty line by providing them income-generating assets through bank credit and Government subsidy.980 crore had been utilized to assist 62. .

about 11.75 crore man days were created under this scheme upto November 2005 (2005-06). The Centre’s contributions in terms of the cash and foodgrains components up to January.65 lakh tones of foodgrains have been released to the 11 . respectively. Under the special component. 4651 crore and 35 lakh tones. The objective of this programme is to provide additional wage employment in the rural areas as also food security and creation of durable community. social and economic infrastructure in the rural areas. 2006 were Rs.  The Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana was launched in September 2001.Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY). 48.

Indira Awas Yojana (IAY):  The Government is implementing Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) with the objective to provide dwelling units. and freed bonded laborers. 48.000/is provided under the schemes. . Scheduled Tribes (STs). A financial assistance of Rs. free of cost. to the Scheduled Castes (SCs). and also the non-SC/ST BPL families in rural areas.

.National Rural Health Mission (NRHM):  The Government has recently launched National Rural Health Mission which seeks to provide effective health care to rural population including unorganized sector laborers throughout the country.

. 25.000 in case of death of a worker due to accident. About 56 lakh workers have so far been are getting benefit under the Act which also provides an insurance cover of Rs.Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA):  Recently the Government has enacted Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act which provides for 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in every financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.

PMGSY aims to provide all-weather connectivity to all the eligible unconnected rural habitations. .718 Km. a total length of 82.Pradhanmantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY):  Launched in December 2000 as a 100 per cent CSS.049 crore. with an expenditure of Rs. 12. It provides employment to rural poor in addition to systematic up gradation of the existing rural road network. The requirement of funds is met mainly by through cess on diesel. of road works had been completed. Up to December 2005.

.52 crore had been utilized until November 30. out of an allocation of Rs. are the two special components of the SJSRY. 84. Rs. 160.00 crore. 2005. In 2005-06.Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY):  Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY): The Urban Self-Employment Programme (USEP) and the Urban Wage Employment Programme (UWEP).

are also covered by the scheme.to the unorganized sector workers in BPL category and their family members (a unit of five).per visit) within an overall limit of Rs. 10.000/. 30.Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY):  It provides insurance cover of Rs. 100/. . Smart cards are provided for cashless treatment for selected diseases which require hospitalization. Transportation costs (actual with maximum limit of Rs.000/.

50% of the annual premium of Rs. in the age group of 18 to 59 years. provides the same benefits as the Janshree Bima Yojana and is also implemented by LIC. of India and the rest 50% by the State Govt. 200/is paid from the fund created for this purpose by the Govt. .Aam Admi Bima Yojana (AABY):  It confined to members of landless unorganized workers in rural households.

are entitled to cash assistance of Rs. Uttar Pradesh. Orissa. All BPL women above 19 years delivering at home. 500/. Health Centre/accredited private institutions are paid Rs.in rural areas and Rs.in urban areas. Madhya Pradesh. 1000/. Jammu & Kashmir. 1400/.per delivery up to two live births. Chhattisgarh.Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY):  In case of 10 low Performing State (Assam. Bihar. . Rajasthan and Uttarakhand) all women delivering in Govt. Jharkhand.

on partial permanent disability. nodal agency of the State Govt. 75. This is applicable to unorganized workers in BPL and marginally APL categories in 43 notified occupations. Rs. Rs. 37. 200/.000/.is paid by the Govt.is paid on natural death. .500/.000/.Janshree Bima Yojana (JBY):  This scheme is implemented by LIC. Under this scheme Rs. of India and the other 50% is paid either by the Beneficiary. 300/per quarter per child is also paid as scholarship for two children from IX to XII classes.on accidental death or on total permanent disability and Rs. 30. 50% of the annual premium of Rs.

000/. however the worker should be the primary bread winner of the family and aged between 18 to 65 years. 10.to the family of an unorganized worker belonging to BPL in case of death due to natural or accidental causes.National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS):  This scheme provides for Rs. . It is implemented through the local bodies.

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