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Introduction to Power System Engineering

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Historical Background Structure of Power System Power Generation Power Transmission

Distribution System

Receives electrical energy from HV/MV levels

Supplies energy to the consumers At MV/LV levels and Single phase or three phase

Distribution System Equipments

Distribution transformers

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Feeders (overhead or underground cables)
Switches, fuses, etc. Protective relays Lightning arrestors CT/PT

Demand at Station During a Day

Overhead vs. Underground Systems

Underground cables are technically advantages than the overhead lines
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Not exposed to environmental conditions Inductance is lower in cable so voltage drop is less

But cables are much more costlier than overhead lines for same dispatch capability and voltage
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Cost of conductor is high Cost of insulation is high

Erection cost is lower for cables but high maintenance cost.

Overhead vs. Underground Systems

Capacitance is predominant in the cables.
This gives large charging current which limits the length of the cables.

Therefore long distance transmission overhead lines are preferred. Cables are mainly used at distribution levels.
Cables are preferred in following conditions:
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Public safety involved and low interference is required
Large populated cities Scenic beauty of city is important

Submarine crossing, and substation and transformer connections

Comparison of AC and DC Systems

P is the amount of power transmitted over same distance.

Vm is the maximum voltage for AC and DC system.
R1 , R2 and R3 are the resistances of each conductor for DC, Single phase AC and Three Phase AC.
DC 2 wire (mid point earthed)

AC 2 Wire (Single phase)

AC 3 wire (Three phase)

Comparison of AC and DC System

Comparison of AC and DC System

From above three equations, we have

Comparison of AC and DC System

The conductor cross-sectional areas for systems is

Therefore, ratio of conductor weights

Comparison of AC and DC Systems

Advantages of HVDC system

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Lower losses
Lower switching overvoltages, lower tower clearances No problem of stability and synchronism. Can interconnect systems with different frequencies.

Disadvantages of HVDC system

Can not supply load directly.

Choice of Working Voltage

The cost of conductor is expensive item in overhead transmission and this is greatly affected by the choice of the voltage level.
V1 I1 V2 = mV1 I2 = I1 / m


R2 = m2R1
a2 =a1/ m2

There will be a saving in cost of conductor material if the power is delivered at higher voltages.

Choice of Working Voltage

But higher system voltages will entail more cost of insulation in equipments like transformers, circuitbreakers, and switches. Cost of insulation increases rapidly with increasing voltages. Therefore for certain length of transmission line, the voltage level beyond which it becomes uneconomical.

Therefore, the question is how to select the transmission and distribution voltages?

Choice of Working Voltage

If C is total annual cost as function of conductor cross section A and working voltage V C = f(A, V)

For minimum cost δf / δA =0 δf / δV =0

This will result in most economical conductor cross section and system voltage, if the function f can be defined accurately.

Choice of Working Voltage

C = annual interest and depreciation on capital cost (fixed cost) + annual cost of energy losses (operational cost). Operational cost depends on conductor cross section, voltage, power factor, change in load time to time, harmonics, etc. Thus, function f depends on many factors and complicated enough to describe it mathematically.

Hence determination based on economic basis is unsatisfactory.

Transmission Cost as Function of Voltage Level.

Choice of Working Voltage
L kVA V  5.5  1.6 150 L 3P V  5.5  1.6 100

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V is the line voltage in kV L is the line distance in km P is the estimated maximum power in kW per phase

Using these empirical relations preliminary estimate is made. Then voltage level is chosen by doing complete economic study of existing interconnected system.