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Distribution system

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Overhead vs. underground system
DC vs. AC systems Choice of working voltage

Transmission Cost as Function of Voltage Level.

Choice of Working Voltage
L kVA V  5.5  1.6 150 L 3P V  5.5  1.6 100

 

V is the line voltage in kV L is the line distance in km P is the estimated maximum power in kW per phase

Using these empirical relations preliminary estimate is made. Then voltage level is chosen by doing complete economic study of existing interconnected system.

Line Parameters

Electrical Parameters


 

Capacitance Conductance

Conductance is due to leakage over line insulators. It is very small and can be always neglected.

Types of Conductor


Aluminum: Cheaper, lighter, but less conductive and less tensile strength than copper

ACSR (Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced)

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AAC (All Aluminum Conductor)
AAAC (All Aluminum Alloy Conductor) ACAR (Aluminum Conductor Alloy Reinforced) Expanded ACSR

ACSR Conductor

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Internal steel strands increase the tensile strength Outer aluminum strands carry the current Stranded conductor with twisted wires for strength and flexibility of mechanical handling.


The DC resistance of conductor at specified temperature is:

  

T l

ρT is the resistivity of the conductor at temperature T l is the length of the conductor in m

A is the cross-sectional area of conductor in m2


Temperature dependence of resistance:
Rt  R0 (1   0T )
 

R0 is the resistance at 00C α0 is the temperature coefficient of the resistance of conductor at 00C

Thus, if the resistance at temperature T1 is known, the resistance at any other temperature T2 can be computed using: Rt 2 (1  0  T2 )  Rt1 (1  0  T1 )

AC Resistance: Skin and Proximity Effect
Skin Effect

Proximity Effect

Currents in same direction

Currents in opposite direction

Material Copper % Conductivity 100% Resistivity (200C) Ωm 1.72

Iron Silver

17.2% 108%

10 1.59

Resistance depends on:
  

Dimensions Frequency


Most dominant line parameter d d di di e   L dt di dt dt Therefore L  d di  In linear magnetic systems L  i
Mutual inductance is:
M 12 


Steps in Calculating Inductance

  

Magnetic field intensity (H) using Ampere’s law
Magnetic flux density B (=μH) Flux linkages (λ) Inductance from flux linkage per ampere (L=λ/I)

Internal Inductance

Internal Inductance

External Inductance

Inductance of Single-Phase Line

Inductance of Single-Phase Line

If r1 = r2 = r , then