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# Review of Last Lecture

 Lossless transmission line
 Power flow through the transmission line

Lossless Transmission Line
In loss less line, resistance is assumed to be zero
( ) ( )
( )
( )
R R x
R C R x
I x V
Zc
x
I
I x Z V x V
¸
¸
¸ ¸
cosh
sinh
sinh cosh
+ =
+ =
C
L
Z
C
=
l j l | ¸ =
( ) ( )
( )
( )
R R x
R C R x
I x V
Zc
x
j I
I x jZ V x V
|
|
| |
cos
sin
sin cos
+ =
+ =
α=0
and
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
R R C x
R C R x
I x V x Z j I
I x jZ V x V
| |
| |
cos sin 1
sin cos
+ =
+ =
R
R
C R C R
I
V
Z I Z V = ¬ =
l j
R S
l j
R S
e I I
e V V
|
|
=
=
x
R C R
x
R C R
e
I Z V
e
I Z V
V
¸ ¸ ÷
÷
+
+
=
2 2
 If the line is terminated with surge impedance Z
c
, the
power transferred to load is called surge impedance

Power Transfer Through Transmission
Line
o Z
S
V 0 Z
R
V
R R R
jQ P S + =
S S S
jQ P S + =
B
AV
B
V
I BI AV V
R S
R R R S
÷ = ¬ + =
| o Z = Z = B B A A and Let
( ) ( ) | o | o ÷ Z ÷ ÷ Z =
B
V A
B
V
I
R S
R
ABCD
|
o
|
o
Z
Z Z
÷
Z
Z
=
B
V A
B
V
I
R S
R
0
Power Flow Through Transmission Line
 Complex power V
R
I
R
*
at receiving end:
( ) ( ) o | o | ÷ Z ÷ ÷ Z =
B
V A
B
V
I
R S
R
*
( ) ( ) o | o | ÷ Z ÷ ÷ Z = + =
B
V A
B
V V
jQ P I V
R R S
R R R R
2
*
Real Part:
Imaginary Part:
( ) ( ) o | o | ÷ ÷ ÷ = cos cos
2
B
V A
B
V V
P
R R S
R
( ) ( ) o | o | ÷ ÷ ÷ = sin sin
2
B
V A
B
V V
Q
R R S
R
 Separating real and imaginary parts
Power Flow Through Transmission Line
 Maximum power will get transferred, if β=δ
( ) o | ÷ ÷ = cos
2
max _
B
V A
B
V V
P
R R S
R
( ) o | ÷ ÷ = sin
2
max _
B
V A
Q
R
R
Real Part:
Imaginary Part
( ) ( ) o | o | ÷ ÷ ÷ = cos cos
2
B
V A
B
V V
P
R R S
R
( ) ( ) o | o | ÷ ÷ ÷ = sin sin
2
B
V A
B
V V
Q
R R S
R
Receiving End Circle Diagram
B
V V
R S
B
V A
R
2
R R
I V
o | ÷
o | ÷
o | ÷
R
u
( ) ( ) o | o | u ÷ Z ÷ ÷ Z = Z
B
V A
B
V V
I V
R R S
R R R
2
W
Var
Maximum Power in Short Line
Approximation
For Short line A=1, B=Z, C=0, D=1
Z R C Z B D A / cos , 0 , , 0 1 = = Z = Z = = u u
( ) R
Z
V
Z
V V
Z
V
Z
V V
P
R R S R R S
R
2
2 2
max _
cos ÷ = ÷ = u
( ) o | ÷ ÷ = cos
2
max _
B
V A
B
V V
P
R R S
R
( ) u sin
2
max _
B
V A
Q
R
R
÷ =
With large X/R Ratio
jX Z X R = << then Generally,
o sin
X
V V
P
R S
R
=
, 0 , 90 , 0 1 = Z = Z = = C X B D A
X
V V
P
R S
R
=
max _
( )
X
V
X
V V
Q
R R S
R
2
cos ÷ = o
( ) V
X
V
V V
X
V
Q
R
R S
R
R
A = ÷ =
Real Part:
Imaginary Part
( ) ( ) o | o | ÷ ÷ ÷ = cos cos
2
B
V A
B
V V
P
R R S
R
( ) ( ) o | o | ÷ ÷ ÷ = sin sin
2
B
V A
B
V V
Q
R R S
R
Power Transfer Capability
• Thermal Limit
• Voltage drop limit
• Stability limit
( ) ( ) l
SIL
l Z
V
B
V V
P
c
R R S
R
|
o
o
|
o
sin
sin
sin
sin
sin
2
= = =
Actual Design
Sending End Power
R R S
DI CV I + =
( )
B
V
B
DV
I
B
V
B
D
V
B
DA
V
B
D
CV I
R S
S
R
S
R S R S
÷ =
÷
÷ =
÷ + =
B
AV
B
V
I
R S
R
÷ = but
 Complex power V
S
I
S
*
at receiving end:
| o Z = Z = = B B A D A and Let
Sending End Power
( ) ( ) | o o | + Z ÷ ÷ Z = + =
B
V V
B
V A
jQ P I V
R S S
S S S S
2
*
Real Part:
Imaginary Part
( ) ( ) | o o | + ÷ ÷ = cos cos
2
B
V V
B
V A
P
R S S
S
( ) ( ) | o o | + ÷ ÷ = sin sin
2
B
V V
B
V A
Q
R S S
S
 Separating real and imaginary parts
( ) | | o o
| |
o o
÷ Z ÷ ÷ + Z =
Z
Z
÷
Z
Z Z
=
B
V
B
V A
B
V
B
V D
I
R S R S
S
0
Mechanical Design, Insulators, Electrical Design
Main Objectives
 Choice of voltage, choice of conductor, spacing between
conductors
 Calculation line constants, regulation and efficiency
 Calculation of Corona Loss
 Choosing number and type of insulators
 Choice of method of grounding
 Stability considerations
 Electrostatic and electromagnetic effect
 Insulation coordination
 Protective system

 Conductors
 Copper
 Aluminum: ACSR, AAAR, AAC, Expanded ACSR
 Support Structure (Towers)
 Galvanized steel (for high voltage)
 Wood, concrete, steel (for low voltage)
 Insulators
 Porcelain
 Glass
 Polymer insulation
Mechanical Design
 Main Factors
 Selection of line route
 Types of tower or pole
 Right of way
 Ground and conductor clearance
 Tower spacing, span length
 Weight of conductor per unit length
 Load due to wind, ice, snow, etc.
 Temperature
 Conductor tension
 Distance between the supports (Span length)
Sag and Tension:
• Maximum sag so that
clearance to ground
and other conductors
can be maintained.

• Maximum tension so
that structures can be
designed to withstand
it.

• Minimum sag to
control structure uplift
problems.
Calculation of Sag and Tension
 L =Span length
 O is the lowest point on the wire

 ws =weight per unit length
 H = tension at point O
 T = tension at point P
Calculation of Sag and Tension
Calculation of Sag and Tension
Integrating
At x=0, s=0, therefore c
1
=0
Calculation of Sag and Tension
Also
Calculation of Sag and Tension
Integrating
At y=0, x=0, therefore
Calculation of Sag and Tension
For tension at point P,
We know
Support at Same Heights
If the towers at same height and span is 2l, i.e. half span is l
Supports at Different Heights
y
a

y
b

2l

2l-x
1

Supports at Different Heights
For tower B
For tower A
Therefore, difference in tower heights
Approximate Formulae for Sag and Tension
and
and