Lossless transmission line
Surge impedance loading
Power flow through the transmission line
Lossless Transmission Line
In loss less line, resistance is assumed to be zero
( ) ( )
( )
( )
R R x
R C R x
I x V
Zc
x
I
I x Z V x V
¸
¸
¸ ¸
cosh
sinh
sinh cosh
+ =
+ =
C
L
Z
C
=
l j l  ¸ =
( ) ( )
( )
( )
R R x
R C R x
I x V
Zc
x
j I
I x jZ V x V


 
cos
sin
sin cos
+ =
+ =
α=0
and
Surge Impedance Loading
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
R R C x
R C R x
I x V x Z j I
I x jZ V x V
 
 
cos sin 1
sin cos
+ =
+ =
R
R
C R C R
I
V
Z I Z V = ¬ =
l j
R S
l j
R S
e I I
e V V


=
=
x
R C R
x
R C R
e
I Z V
e
I Z V
V
¸ ¸ ÷
÷
+
+
=
2 2
If the line is terminated with surge impedance Z
c
, the
power transferred to load is called surge impedance
loading
Power Transfer Through Transmission
Line
o Z
S
V 0 Z
R
V
R R R
jQ P S + =
S S S
jQ P S + =
Gen Load
B
AV
B
V
I BI AV V
R S
R R R S
÷ = ¬ + =
 o Z = Z = B B A A and Let
( ) ( )  o  o ÷ Z ÷ ÷ Z =
B
V A
B
V
I
R S
R
ABCD

o

o
Z
Z Z
÷
Z
Z
=
B
V A
B
V
I
R S
R
0
Power Flow Through Transmission Line
Complex power V
R
I
R
*
at receiving end:
( ) ( ) o  o  ÷ Z ÷ ÷ Z =
B
V A
B
V
I
R S
R
*
( ) ( ) o  o  ÷ Z ÷ ÷ Z = + =
B
V A
B
V V
jQ P I V
R R S
R R R R
2
*
Real Part:
Imaginary Part:
( ) ( ) o  o  ÷ ÷ ÷ = cos cos
2
B
V A
B
V V
P
R R S
R
( ) ( ) o  o  ÷ ÷ ÷ = sin sin
2
B
V A
B
V V
Q
R R S
R
Separating real and imaginary parts
Power Flow Through Transmission Line
Maximum power will get transferred, if β=δ
( ) o  ÷ ÷ = cos
2
max _
B
V A
B
V V
P
R R S
R
( ) o  ÷ ÷ = sin
2
max _
B
V A
Q
R
R
Real Part:
Imaginary Part
( ) ( ) o  o  ÷ ÷ ÷ = cos cos
2
B
V A
B
V V
P
R R S
R
( ) ( ) o  o  ÷ ÷ ÷ = sin sin
2
B
V A
B
V V
Q
R R S
R
Receiving End Circle Diagram
B
V V
R S
B
V A
R
2
R R
I V
o  ÷
o  ÷
o  ÷
R
u
( ) ( ) o  o  u ÷ Z ÷ ÷ Z = Z
B
V A
B
V V
I V
R R S
R R R
2
W
Var
Maximum Power in Short Line
Approximation
For Short line A=1, B=Z, C=0, D=1
Z R C Z B D A / cos , 0 , , 0 1 = = Z = Z = = u u
( ) R
Z
V
Z
V V
Z
V
Z
V V
P
R R S R R S
R
2
2 2
max _
cos ÷ = ÷ = u
( ) o  ÷ ÷ = cos
2
max _
B
V A
B
V V
P
R R S
R
( ) u sin
2
max _
B
V A
Q
R
R
÷ =
With large X/R Ratio
jX Z X R = << then Generally,
o sin
X
V V
P
R S
R
=
, 0 , 90 , 0 1 = Z = Z = = C X B D A
X
V V
P
R S
R
=
max _
( )
X
V
X
V V
Q
R R S
R
2
cos ÷ = o
( ) V
X
V
V V
X
V
Q
R
R S
R
R
A = ÷ =
Real Part:
Imaginary Part
( ) ( ) o  o  ÷ ÷ ÷ = cos cos
2
B
V A
B
V V
P
R R S
R
( ) ( ) o  o  ÷ ÷ ÷ = sin sin
2
B
V A
B
V V
Q
R R S
R
Steady State Stability Limit
Power Transfer Capability
• Thermal Limit
• Voltage drop limit
• Stability limit
( ) ( ) l
SIL
l Z
V
B
V V
P
c
R R S
R

o
o

o
sin
sin
sin
sin
sin
2
= = =
Actual Design
Sending End Power
R R S
DI CV I + =
( )
B
V
B
DV
I
B
BC AD V
V
B
D
V
B
DA
V
B
D
CV I
R S
S
R
S
R S R S
÷ =
÷
÷ =
÷ + =
B
AV
B
V
I
R S
R
÷ = but
Complex power V
S
I
S
*
at receiving end:
 o Z = Z = = B B A D A and Let
Sending End Power
( ) ( )  o o  + Z ÷ ÷ Z = + =
B
V V
B
V A
jQ P I V
R S S
S S S S
2
*
Real Part:
Imaginary Part
( ) ( )  o o  + ÷ ÷ = cos cos
2
B
V V
B
V A
P
R S S
S
( ) ( )  o o  + ÷ ÷ = sin sin
2
B
V V
B
V A
Q
R S S
S
Separating real and imaginary parts
( )   o o
 
o o
÷ Z ÷ ÷ + Z =
Z
Z
÷
Z
Z Z
=
B
V
B
V A
B
V
B
V D
I
R S R S
S
0
Overhead Transmission Lines
Mechanical Design, Insulators, Electrical Design
Main Objectives
Choice of voltage, choice of conductor, spacing between
conductors
Calculation line constants, regulation and efficiency
Calculation of Corona Loss
Choosing number and type of insulators
Choice of method of grounding
Calculation of radio interference
Stability considerations
Electrostatic and electromagnetic effect
Insulation coordination
Protective system
Main Components of Overhead Line
Conductors
Copper
Aluminum: ACSR, AAAR, AAC, Expanded ACSR
Support Structure (Towers)
Galvanized steel (for high voltage)
Wood, concrete, steel (for low voltage)
Insulators
Porcelain
Glass
Polymer insulation
Mechanical Design
Main Factors
Selection of line route
Types of tower or pole
Right of way
Ground and conductor clearance
Tower spacing, span length
Mechanical loadings
Weight of conductor per unit length
Load due to wind, ice, snow, etc.
Temperature
Conductor tension
Distance between the supports (Span length)
Sag and Tension:
• Maximum sag so that
clearance to ground
and other conductors
can be maintained.
• Maximum tension so
that structures can be
designed to withstand
it.
• Minimum sag to
control structure uplift
problems.
Calculation of Sag and Tension
L =Span length
O is the lowest point on the wire
ws =weight per unit length
H = tension at point O
T = tension at point P
Calculation of Sag and Tension
Calculation of Sag and Tension
Integrating
At x=0, s=0, therefore c
1
=0
Calculation of Sag and Tension
Also
Calculation of Sag and Tension
Integrating
At y=0, x=0, therefore
Calculation of Sag and Tension
For tension at point P,
We know
Support at Same Heights
If the towers at same height and span is 2l, i.e. half span is l
Supports at Different Heights
y
a
y
b
2l
2lx
1
Supports at Different Heights
For tower B
For tower A
Therefore, difference in tower heights
Approximate Formulae for Sag and Tension
and
and