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Review of Last Class

 Electrical Design
 Insulator Characteristics: Homogeneous, low leakage, high
dielectric and mechanical strength and long life.
 Ratings: Working voltage, Flashover voltage and Puncture
Voltage
 Materials: Porcelain, Glass, Polymeric insulation materials
 Type of insulators: Pin, Suspension, Strain
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Pin Type Insulator
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulator_(electrical)
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Suspension Type Insulators
http://www.electrotechnik.net/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulator_(electrical) 3
Strain Type Insulator
http://lifeatllu.blogspot.com/2009_03_01_archive.html
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Shackle, Post and Polymeric insulators
http://www.electrotechnik.net/
Shackle insulators or
spool insulators
Post type insulators Polymeric insulators
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Potential Distribution over String
 Capacitance of disc:
Capacitance between metal
work of the insulator units;
some times called as mutual
capacitance.
 Capacitance to ground:
capacitance between metal
work of insulator to tower.
http://www.epemag.net/electricity-generation-pylons.html
C
mC
m = =
ground to e Capacitanc
insulator per e Capacitanc
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Potential Distribution over the String
 If V is voltage across the conductor and
ground. We have:
Also
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
m
V V
1
1
1 2
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Potential Distribution over the String
 Similarly,
(
¸
(

¸

+ + =
2
1 3
1 3
1
m m
V V
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Potential Distribution over the String
 Similarly,
(
¸
(

¸

+ + + =
3 2
1 4
1 5 6
1
m m m
V V
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String Efficiency
 Let m = 5
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
m
V V
1
1
1 2
(
¸
(

¸

+ + =
2
1 3
1 3
1
m m
V V
(
¸
(

¸

+ + + =
3 2
1 4
1 5 6
1
m m m
V V
1 2
2 . 1 V V =
1 2
64 . 1 V V =
1 2
41 . 2 V V =
% 8 . 63 100
41 . 2 4
) 41 . 2 64 . 1 2 . 1 1 (
100
1
1
= ×
×
+ + +
=
×
×
=
V
V
line to adjacent unit across Voltage n
String Across Voltage
Ef f ciency String
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Methods of Equalizing the Potential
 Methods to improve string efficiency
 Selection of m
 Grading of units
 Static shielding or guard rings

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Selection of m
 If the value of m is increased, which can
be achieved by increasing the cross-arm
length.
 Increased cross-arm length decreases the
capacitance between earth and metallic
connections.
 However increasing cross-arm length is
not economical after certain distance.
 Theoretically, one can achieve equal
voltage distribution when m is infinity.
 It is found that value of m greater than
10 is not economical.
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Grading of Units
 Voltage across capacitor is
inversely proportional to the
capacitance for given current.
 By correct grading of
capacitances complete equality
voltage can be achieved.
 We have,
( )
1 2
1 2
1 1 2
C C C
V C V C V C
I I I
C
+ =
+ =
+ =
e e e
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Grading of Units
( )
( )
( )C C C
C C C
V C C V C V C
C C C But
V C V C V C
I I I
C
2 1
3
2
2
1 3
1 3
1 3
1 2
2 3
2 2 3
+ + =
+ =
+ + =
+ =
+ =
+ =
e e e
e e e
Generalized case:
( ) ( )C n C C
n
1 3 2 1
1
÷ + + + + + = 
on so and , 11 , 8 , 6
4 3 2
C C C C C C = = =
Therefore, if C
1
=5C, then
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Grading of Units
 Thus if capacitance of one unit is
fixed other capacitances can be
easily determined.

 This requires units of different
capacities, which is uneconomical
and impractical.
 Therefore this method is usually
not employed except for very high
voltage lines.
 In that case, string is graded in
groups, may be two/three.
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Static Shielding
3 3 4
2 2 3
1 1 2
C z
C y
C x
I I I I
I I I I
I I I I
+ = +
+ = +
+ = +
( ) 1
) 1 (
1
÷
=
= ÷
=
n
C
C
V C V n Cx
I I
x
C x
e e
Voltages can be equal if
Also,
( ) 2
2
2 ) 2 (
2
÷
=
= ÷
=
n
C
C
V C V n Cy
I I
y
C y
e e
Similarly, and
( ) 3
3
÷
=
n
C
C
Z
( ) p n
pC
C
p
÷
=
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Static Shielding
 In practice, it is very difficult to
achieve the condition of equal
voltages.
 However the partial advantage
can be gained by this method
(guard ring) and used normally.
 Further, when the horn gap is
also used, it also protect the
insulator from the flashover.

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Numerical Method (FEM, BEM, FDM, etc.)
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