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Review of Last Class

 Mechanism of corona formation
 Negative DC Voltage
 Positive DC Voltage
 AC Voltage
 Critical disruptive voltage or corona inception voltage

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Critical Disruptive Voltage
 The minimum potential difference required between the
conductor to start ionization is called critical disruptive voltage
or corona inception voltage

Critical Disruptive Voltage
Fair (or standard) whether
conditions and solid
conductor with smooth
surface
g
max
= g
0

g
0
= 30 kV/Cm (Peak)

g
0
= 21.1 kV/Cm (rms)


Other (or foul) whether conditions
than standard and solid conductor
with smooth surface
g
max
= δ g
0

|
.
|

\
|
=
r
D
r g V
c
ln
0
t
p
+
=
273
392 . 0 o
|
.
|

\
|
=
r
D
r g V
c
ln
max
|
.
|

\
|
=
r
D
r g V
c
ln
0
o
Other whether conditions than
standard and conductor with
irregular surface (ACSR)
g
max
= m
0
δ g
0

The value m
0
is
0.8 to 1


|
.
|

\
|
=
r
D
r g m V
c
ln
0 0
o
Visual Critical Disruptive Voltage
 At the critical disruptive voltage corona starts, but it will
not be visible. It requires further ionization by collision.
 If the voltage is further increased at some point corona
becomes visible. This voltage is called as visual critical
disruptive voltage or visual corona inception voltage.
 The voltage gradient (g
v
) for visual corona is given by
[Peek]:


kV/cm
301 . 0
1
0
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
o
o
r
g g
v
 Therefore, ( ) | |
( ) | | kV ln
301 . 0
1
kV ln
0
r D r
r
g m V
r D r g m V
v d
v v d
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
=
o
o
Visual Critical Disruptive Voltage
 Surface irregularity factor (m
v
) is different from m
0
.
 Local corona: For conductor with irregular surface, visual
corona occurs first at different points than whole surface
called as local corona.
 m
v
= 0.72 for local visual corona on stranded conductor
 m
v
= 0.82 for general (or decided) corona on stranded conductor
 m
v
= 1 for smooth and polished conductor
 Now when d and r expressed in cm.
( ) | |
( ) | | (rms) kV ln
301 . 0
1 1 . 21
(Peak) kV ln
301 . 0
1 30
r D r m
r
V
r D r m
r
V
v d
v d
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
o
o
o
o
Critical Disruptive Voltage
|
.
|

\
|
=
r
D
r g V
c
ln
max
Critical Disruptive Voltage
or corona inception voltage
g
max
= m
0
δ g
0

The value m
0
is 0.8 to
1


|
.
|

\
|
=
r
D
r g m V
c
ln
0 0
o
Visual critical disruptive
voltage or visual corona
inception voltage


kV/cm in
301 . 0
1
0
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
o
o
r
g g
v
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
=
r
D
r g m V
v v d
ln
Corona Loss
 The ionized charges near the conductor surface take energy from
the supply system and thus there is loss of some energy due to
corona.
 Peek’s Empirical relation for corona in fair whether condition
( ) m kW/phase/k
25
10 241
2
5
c p c
V V
d
r f
P ÷
+
× × =
÷
o
Where V
P
phase to neutral operating voltage in kV and f is frequency.
• For storm, wet or foul whether condition voltage is 0.8 V
c
( ) m kW/phase/k 8 . 0
25
10 241
2
5
c p c
V V
d
r f
P ÷
+
× × =
÷
o
This relation is correct results when 1) Corona loss is predominant
2) Frequency lies between 25 and 125 Hz 3)Ration of V
p
/V
c
> 1.8
4) radius of conductor is greater than 0.25 cm.

Corona Loss
 When the ratio V
p
/V
c
< 1.8 Peterson’s formula gives
good results



 Here F is corona factor determined by test depends on
V
p
/V
c
.


( ) ( )
m kW/Phase/k
/ ln
10 11066 . 1
2
2 4
F
r d
V f
P
c
÷
×
=
V
p
/V
c
1 1.4 1.6
F 0.05 0.3 1
Factors Affecting Corona
 Atmospheric factors


 Electrical factor

 Line configuration


• Temperature • Pressure
• Dust and dirt • Rain, snow, fog
• Frequency • Supply voltage
• Conductor configuration • Profile of conductor
• Diameter of conductor • Surface condition
• Number of conductor per
phase
• Heating of conductor by
load current
• Conductor spacing
Factors Affecting Corona
 Atmospheric Factors






 Temperature:
 Pressure:
 Dust, dirt:
 Rain, snow, fog:
t
p
t
p
+
=
+
·
+
=
273
392 . 0
760
25 273
273
o
( ) m kW/phase/k
25
10 241
2
5
c p c
V V
d
r f
P ÷
+
× × =
÷
o
|
.
|

\
|
=
r
D
r g m V
c
ln
0 0
o
Factors Affecting Corona
 Electrical Factor






 Frequency
 Voltage
t
p
t
p
+
=
+
·
+
=
273
392 . 0
760
25 273
273
o
( ) m kW/phase/k
25
10 241
2
5
c p c
V V
d
r f
P ÷
+
× × =
÷
o
|
.
|

\
|
=
r
D
r g m V
c
ln
0 0
o
Factors Affecting Corona
 Line configuration
( ) m kW/phase/k
25
10 241
2
5
c p c
V V
d
r f
P ÷
+
× × =
÷
o
|
.
|

\
|
=
r
D
r g m V
c
ln
0 0
o
• Conductor configuration • Profile of conductor
• Diameter of conductor • Surface condition
• Number of conductor per
phase
• Heating of conductor by
load current
• Conductor spacing
Merits and Demerits of Corona
 Merits
 Act as safety valve during lightning and switching surges.
 The waves gets dissipated as corona loss.
 Other applications:
 Van de Graaff generator, Electrostatic precipitator, Electro printing,
Ionization counting, Electrostatic deposition
 Demerits
 Corona loss reduces efficiency.
 Ionized air around the conductor works as conducting medium
increases effective diameter of conductor.
 This increases capacitance and decrease surge impedance
loading.
 Interference with communication lines.