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Review of Last Class

Underground Cables

Conductors Insulation materials for cable
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Paper (3.6, 20 kV/mm, 800C (continuous), 500 kV (pressurized)) PVC (5.0, 17 kV/mm, 700C (max), 22 kV) XLPE (2.5, 18-20 kV/mm, 900C(continuous), 220 kV (500kV)) TR-XLPE EPR Belted Screened Pressure cables

Different types of cable
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Cable Structure

http://www.coppercanada.ca/publications/pub21e/21e-Section6.html

Paper-Insulated LeadCovered Cables (PILC)

Sub- Marine Cable

Materials of Cable Component
Conductor Insulation Shield Sheath Jacket Armor

•Copper or

•Paper •PVC •XLPE •Aluminum •TR-XLPE (Stranded) •EPR

•Semicondu •Lead -cting •Aluminum (Insulation with carbon impregnation)

•PVC •Polythene •Nylon •Neoprene

•Galvanized steel

•Vulcanized rubber •Aluminum •Polythene Copper (tape)

Single Core and Three Core Cables

Single Core Cable

Three Core Cable (Below 66 kV)

Belted and Screened or shielded Cable

Belted Screened
 

H-Type Screened

S.L. Type

Belted cables are used up to 11 kV. There are two types of screened cables H-Type (Hochstadter) and S.L. type (Separate lead). Used up to 33 kV

George F. Moore, Electric cables handbook, Blackwell Science, 1997

Pressurized Cable (Oil filled & oil pressure)


Above 220 kV, It is necessary to avoid void formation. Voids are generally formed by cyclic heating and cooling and can be prevented by use of oil under pressure. Oil channel is made by spiral steel tape.

Gas Pressurized and Gas Filled Cables

  

Mainly two types: 1. impregnated gas pressure cable 2. gas filled cables. More revolutionary are the cables incorporating cryogenic cooler. Used up to 132 kV to 500 kV

Electrical Characteristics of Cables
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Insulation resistance Conductor inductance Cable capacitance Electrical stress inside insulation

Grading of cable

Capacitance grading Inter-sheath grading

 

Dielectric losses and tan delta (loss tangent) Sheath and armour losses

Insulation Resistance

Resistance of small section dx is: Therefore insulation resistance is Insulation per unit length

Conductor Inductance

For single core cable:

For three core cable:

Inductance of Cable

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Capacitance of Cable

Therefore, voltage is

Therefore, capacitance between core to sheath

Capacitance of Three Core Belted Cable

Electric Stress in The Cable

Maximum stress occurs at the surface of conductor

Minimum stress occurs at the sheath surface

Underground Cable System

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