Insulation materials for cable
Different types of cable
Single core Cable
Three core cable
Belted
Screened or shielded
HType cable
S.L. Type cable
Pressure cables
Oil pressure cable
Gas pressure cable >> Cryoresistive cable
Today: Electrical Characteristics of Cables
Operating Range of the Cables
Gonen T., Electric Power Transmission System Engineering Analysis and Design, CRC Pres, 2010.
Electric Field Intensity with Voids
Effect of Void Permittivity
Air Voids
Voids filled with oil
Electrical Characteristics of Cables
Insulation resistance
Cable inductance
Cable capacitance
Electrical stress inside insulation
Grading of cable
Capacitance grading
Intersheath grading
Dielectric losses and tan delta (loss tangent)
Sheath and armour losses
Breakdowns in cable insulations
Insulation Resistance
Resistance of small section dx is:
Therefore insulation resistance is
Insulation per unit length
Conductor Inductance
For single core cable:
For three core cable:
D = separation distance between phase conductor
r’ = 0.7788r
r = radius of the conductor
D = separation distance between
cores (equilateral spacing)
r’ = 0.7788r
Inductance of Cable
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Where
K=1 for equilateral spacing
K =1.26 for flat spacing
D = distance between conductors
r = conductor radius
mH/km ln 2 . 0 05 . 0
r
D K
L + =
Capacitance of Single Core Cable
Therefore C=q/V gives, capacitance between core to sheath
Therefore, voltage is
Capacitance of Three Core Belted Cable
μF/km
52 . 0 70 . 1 84 . 3 1 log
0298 . 0
2
2
10
0


.

\



.

\

+ ÷
+
+
=
T
t
T
t
d
t T
C
r
c
If
• ε
r =
the relative permittivity of the
insulation,
• t = thickness of belt insulation,
• d = diameter of the conductor and
• T = conductor insulation thickness.
Capacitance of Three Core Belted Cable
2 1 0
3C C C + =
How to find C
1
and C
2
Take following measurements:
1. All the three conductors joined together and
measure the capacitance between sheath and
conductors.
C
x
=3C
1
C
1
= C
x
/3
1. Connect two conductors and sheath together
and measure the capacitance between sheath
and remaining conductors
C
y
= 2C
2
+C
1
6 2 2 2
1
2
x
y y
C
C
C
C
C ÷ = ÷ =
Therefore
6 2
3
6 2
3
3
3
2 1 0
x
y
x
y
x
C
C
C
C
C
C C C ÷ =


.

\

÷ + = + =
Electric Stress in The Cable
Maximum stress occurs at the surface of conductor
Minimum stress occurs at the sheath surface
Electric Stress in The Cable
Optimal radius minimum stress
Electric Stress in The Cable
Grading of Cables
Electric field inside the cable is not uniform, maximum at
conductor surface and minimum at the sheath.
Thus insulation material is not properly utilized.
The insulation near conductor surface is stressed more
while there is very less stress at the outer diameter of
cable.
Grading is used to decrease difference between E
max
and
E
min
.
Grading can be broadly classified into two categories.
Capacitance Grading
Intersheath Grading
Capacitance Grading
Ideal condition for stress in cable
There fore the permittivity is
This can not be realized in practice
since it requires infinite number of
dielectric materials with varying
permittivity
In practice, this can be realized by
two or three layers of the dielectric
materials.
Capacitance Grading (With Same Safety Factor)
While designing cable
Let dielectric strengths of
material is G
1
G
2
and G
3
corresponding to ε
1
, ε
2,
and ε
3
and F is safety factor same for
all materials.
Layer 1 (ε
1
) Layer 1 (ε
2
) Layer 1 (ε
3
)
Capacitance Grading (With Same Safety Factor)
Since r < r
1
<r
2
Therefore material having highest product of permittivity and
dielectric strength should be kept near to the conductor. The
operating voltage of Cable is given by
Capacitance Grading (With Same Maximum Stress)
If the materials are subjected to
same maximum stress at the r ,
r
1
, and r
2
Layer 1 (ε
1
) Layer 1 (ε
2
) Layer 1 (ε
3
)
Capacitance Grading (With Same Maximum Stress)
Therefore same maximum stress
material having highest permittivity
needs to be kept at surface of
conductor.
Since r < r
1
<r
2
Capacitance Grading
Without grading With capacitance grading
ε
r
= 4.4
ε
r
= 2.2
ε
r
= 4.4
ε
r
= 6.6
Intersheath Grading
Metal Sheaths having radii r
1
and r
2
are kept at potential V
1
and V
2.
using auxiliary
transformer .
Layer 1 (V) Layer 1 (V
1
) Layer 1 (V
2
)
Intersheath Grading
Since the material is same, the maximum stress is also same:
Without grading
Intersheath grading
Intersheath Grading
Without grading Intersheath grading
0 kV
33 kV
66 kV
110 KV
0 kV
110 KV
Grading of Cable
Generally not used for following reasons:
Nonavailability of material with varying permittivity
materials
Change in permittivity with time
Damage of intersheath during cable laying
Charging current through the intersheath can damage the
cable due to overheating
Resonance due to cable capacitance and transformers
inductance
Power loss in leakage resistance
For small angle δ
From phasor diagram
Therefore, dielectric power loss:
Dielectric Losses or Loss Tangent
Loss Tangent of Different Materials
Material Tan δ
Impregnated Paper 0.01
Oil filled paper insulation 0.004
PVC 0.1
XLPE 0.0004
The loss angle depends on the temperature.
Roughly it follows ‘V’ curve, i.e. Loss angle will be
minimum at certain temperature.
Other Topics
Breakdowns in Cable Insulation
Intrinsic Breakdown or puncture:
Thermal Breakdown:
Tracking:
Sheath and armour losses
HVDC Cables
Current Carrying Capacity:
There is no charging current which will decrease copper losses.
Only loss due to leakage current. dielectric hysteresis loss will
be zero.
No voltage will be induced in sheath hence sheath losses due to
induced current will be zero.
Voltage Rating
DC breakdown stress is more than corresponding AC, hence
cables can be used for higher DC voltages than AC.
Underground Cable System
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