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Review of Last Class

 Insulation materials for cable
 Different types of cable
 Single core Cable
 Three core cable
 Belted
 Screened or shielded
 H-Type cable
 S.L. Type cable
 Pressure cables
 Oil pressure cable
 Gas pressure cable >> Cryoresistive cable
 Today: Electrical Characteristics of Cables
Operating Range of the Cables
Gonen T., Electric Power Transmission System Engineering Analysis and Design, CRC Pres, 2010.
Electric Field Intensity with Voids
Effect of Void Permittivity
Air Voids
Voids filled with oil
Electrical Characteristics of Cables
 Insulation resistance
 Cable inductance
 Cable capacitance
 Electrical stress inside insulation
 Grading of cable
 Capacitance grading
 Inter-sheath grading
 Dielectric losses and tan delta (loss tangent)
 Sheath and armour losses
 Breakdowns in cable insulations

Insulation Resistance
 Resistance of small section dx is:


 Therefore insulation resistance is



 Insulation per unit length
Conductor Inductance
 For single core cable:





 For three core cable:

D = separation distance between phase conductor
r’ = 0.7788r
r = radius of the conductor
D = separation distance between
cores (equilateral spacing)
r’ = 0.7788r
Inductance of Cable
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Where
K=1 for equilateral spacing
K =1.26 for flat spacing
D = distance between conductors
r = conductor radius
mH/km ln 2 . 0 05 . 0
r
D K
L + =
Capacitance of Single Core Cable
Therefore C=q/V gives, capacitance between core to sheath
Therefore, voltage is
Capacitance of Three Core Belted Cable
μF/km
52 . 0 70 . 1 84 . 3 1 log
0298 . 0
2
2
10
0
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
+
+
=
T
t
T
t
d
t T
C
r
c
If
• ε
r =
the relative permittivity of the
insulation,
• t = thickness of belt insulation,
• d = diameter of the conductor and
• T = conductor insulation thickness.
Capacitance of Three Core Belted Cable
2 1 0
3C C C + =
How to find C
1
and C
2
Take following measurements:
1. All the three conductors joined together and
measure the capacitance between sheath and
conductors.
C
x
=3C
1
C
1
= C
x
/3

1. Connect two conductors and sheath together
and measure the capacitance between sheath
and remaining conductors
C
y
= 2C
2
+C
1

6 2 2 2
1
2
x
y y
C
C
C
C
C ÷ = ÷ =
Therefore

6 2
3
6 2
3
3
3
2 1 0
x
y
x
y
x
C
C
C
C
C
C C C ÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + = + =
Electric Stress in The Cable
 Maximum stress occurs at the surface of conductor


 Minimum stress occurs at the sheath surface

Electric Stress in The Cable
 Optimal radius minimum stress



Electric Stress in The Cable
Grading of Cables
 Electric field inside the cable is not uniform, maximum at
conductor surface and minimum at the sheath.
 Thus insulation material is not properly utilized.
 The insulation near conductor surface is stressed more
while there is very less stress at the outer diameter of
cable.
 Grading is used to decrease difference between E
max
and
E
min
.
 Grading can be broadly classified into two categories.
 Capacitance Grading
 Intersheath Grading

Capacitance Grading
Ideal condition for stress in cable
There fore the permittivity is
This can not be realized in practice
since it requires infinite number of
dielectric materials with varying
permittivity

In practice, this can be realized by
two or three layers of the dielectric
materials.
Capacitance Grading (With Same Safety Factor)
 While designing cable

 Let dielectric strengths of
material is G
1
G
2
and G
3

corresponding to ε
1
, ε
2,
and ε
3

and F is safety factor same for
all materials.

Layer 1 (ε
1
) Layer 1 (ε
2
) Layer 1 (ε
3
)
Capacitance Grading (With Same Safety Factor)
 Since r < r
1
<r
2

 Therefore material having highest product of permittivity and
dielectric strength should be kept near to the conductor. The
operating voltage of Cable is given by

Capacitance Grading (With Same Maximum Stress)
 If the materials are subjected to
same maximum stress at the r ,
r
1
, and r
2
Layer 1 (ε
1
) Layer 1 (ε
2
) Layer 1 (ε
3
)
Capacitance Grading (With Same Maximum Stress)
 Therefore same maximum stress
material having highest permittivity
needs to be kept at surface of
conductor.

 Since r < r
1
<r
2

Capacitance Grading
Without grading With capacitance grading
ε
r
= 4.4
ε
r
= 2.2

ε
r
= 4.4

ε
r
= 6.6
Intersheath Grading
 Metal Sheaths having radii r
1

and r
2
are kept at potential V
1

and V
2.
using auxiliary
transformer .
Layer 1 (V) Layer 1 (V
1
) Layer 1 (V
2
)
Intersheath Grading
 Since the material is same, the maximum stress is also same:
Without grading
Intersheath grading
Intersheath Grading
Without grading Intersheath grading
0 kV

33 kV

66 kV

110 KV
0 kV





110 KV
Grading of Cable
 Generally not used for following reasons:
 Non-availability of material with varying permittivity
materials
 Change in permittivity with time

 Damage of intersheath during cable laying
 Charging current through the intersheath can damage the
cable due to overheating
 Resonance due to cable capacitance and transformers
inductance


 Power loss in leakage resistance


 For small angle δ

 From phasor diagram



 Therefore, dielectric power loss:

Dielectric Losses or Loss Tangent
Loss Tangent of Different Materials
Material Tan δ
Impregnated Paper 0.01
Oil filled paper insulation 0.004
PVC 0.1
XLPE 0.0004
 The loss angle depends on the temperature.
 Roughly it follows ‘V’ curve, i.e. Loss angle will be
minimum at certain temperature.

Other Topics
 Breakdowns in Cable Insulation
 Intrinsic Breakdown or puncture:
 Thermal Breakdown:
 Tracking:

 Sheath and armour losses
HVDC Cables
 Current Carrying Capacity:
 There is no charging current which will decrease copper losses.
 Only loss due to leakage current. dielectric hysteresis loss will
be zero.
 No voltage will be induced in sheath hence sheath losses due to
induced current will be zero.

 Voltage Rating
 DC breakdown stress is more than corresponding AC, hence
cables can be used for higher DC voltages than AC.

Underground Cable System
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