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# Review of Last Class

Electrical Characteristics of Cables

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Insulation resistance Cable inductance (Empirical relations due presence of sheath, amour, shields, etc.) Cable capacitance

Belted core cable (Empirical relations, measurement method) Grading of cable
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Electrical stress inside insulation

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Dielectric losses and tan delta (loss tangent) Sheath and armour losses Breakdowns in cable insulations

There fore the permittivity is

This can not be realized in practice since it requires infinite number of dielectric materials with varying permittivity In practice, this can be realized by two or three layers of the dielectric materials.

Ideal condition for stress in cable

Capacitance Grading (With Same Safety Factor)

While designing cable
Let dielectric strengths of material is G1 G2 and G3 corresponding to ε1, ε2, and ε3 and F is safety factor same for all materials.

Layer 1 (ε1)

Layer 1 (ε2)

Layer 1 (ε3)

Capacitance Grading (With Same Safety Factor)

 

Since r < r1<r2 Therefore material having highest product of permittivity and dielectric strength should be kept near to the conductor. The operating voltage of Cable is given by

Capacitance Grading (With Same Maximum Stress)

If the materials are subjected to same maximum stress at the r , r1, and r2

Layer 1 (ε1)

Layer 1 (ε2)

Layer 1 (ε3)

Capacitance Grading (With Same Maximum Stress)

Since r < r1<r2 Therefore same maximum stress material having highest permittivity needs to be kept at surface of conductor.

εr = 2.2
εr = 4.4 εr = 4.4 εr = 6.6

Metal Sheaths having radii r1 and r2 are kept at potential V1 and V2. using auxiliary transformer .

Layer 1 (V)

Layer 1 (V1)

Layer 1 (V2)

Since the material is same, the maximum stress is also same:

0 kV

0 kV 33 kV 66 kV

110 KV

110 KV

Generally not used for following reasons:  Non-availability of materials with required varying permittivity materials  Change in permittivity with time
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Damage of intersheath during cable laying Charging current through the intersheath can damage the cable due to overheating Resonance due to cable capacitance and transformers inductance

Dielectric Losses or Loss Tangent

Power loss in leakage resistance

For small angle δ From phasor diagram

Therefore, dielectric power loss:

Loss Tangent of Different Materials
Material Impregnated Paper Tan δ 0.01

Oil filled paper insulation
PVC XLPE

0.004
0.1 0.0004

 

The loss angle depends on the temperature. Roughly it follows ‘V’ curve, i.e. Loss angle will be minimum at certain temperature.

Other Topics

Breakdowns in Cable Insulation

Intrinsic Breakdown or puncture: Thermal Breakdown: Tracking:

Sheath and armour losses

HVDC Cables

Current Carrying Capacity:

There is no charging current which will decrease copper losses. Only loss due to leakage current. dielectric hysteresis loss will be zero. No voltage will be induced in sheath hence sheath losses due to induced current will be zero.

Voltage Rating
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DC breakdown stress is more than corresponding AC, hence cables can be used for higher DC voltages than AC. Or, for same voltage rating DC cable can have smaller insulation thickness than AC cable.

Underground Cable System

http://www05.abb.com/