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• Complements are used in digital computers for simplifying the subtraction operations and for logical manipulation. There are two types of complements for each base-r system. (1) the r’s complement and (2) the (r-1)’s complement. • When the value of the base is substituted, the two types receives the names 2’s and 1’s complement for binary numbers or 10’s and 9’s complement for decimal numbers.

1010 .0110)2=0.3267 = 0. the r’s complement of N is defined as rn-N for N ≠ 0 and 0 for N=0.3267)10 is 1.0110)2 is (1-0. • The 10’s complement of (52520)10 is 105-52520 =47480 • The number of digits in the number is n=5 • The 10’s complement of (0.0.6733 • No integer part so 10n=100=1 • The 10’s complement of (25. The following numerical example will help clarify the definition.101100)=010100 • The 2’s complement of (0.The r’s Complement • Given a positive number N in base r with an integer part of n digits.639)10 is 102-25.361 • The 2’s complement of (101100)2 is (26)10 – (101100)2=(1000000 .639=74.

639)=99. • The 1’s complement of (0.3267)=0.639=74.0110)2 =0.0110) 2 = (0.3267=0.1001 . 10-m=100=1 • The 9’s complement of (0. Some numerical examples follow: • The 9’s complement of (52520)10 is (105-1-52520)=9999952520=47479.1111-0.99990. so 10n=100=1.360 • The 1’s complement of (101100)2 is (26-1) – (101100)=(111111-101100)=010011. • No fraction party.0110)2 is (1-2-4)10 – (0.The (r-1)’s Complement • Given a positive number N in base r with an integer part of n digits.639)10 is (102-10-325. the (r-1)’s complement of N is defined rn-r-m-N. • The 9’s complement of (25.999-25.6732 • No integer part.3267)10 is (1-10-4-0.

• It is sometimes convenient to use it when the r’s complement is desired. For example. The 1’s are changed to 0’s and the 0’s to 1’s. From the definitions and a comparison of the results obtained in the examples. we see that the 9’s complement of a decimal number is formed simply by subtracting every digit from 9. it follows that the r’s complement can be obtained from the (r-1)’s complement after the addition of r-m to the least significant digit. .• From the examples. Since the (r-1)’s complement is very easily obtained. the 2’s complement of 10110100 is obtained from the 1’s complement 01001011 by adding 1 to give 01001100. The 1’s complement of a binary number is even simpler to form.

• The direct method of subtraction taught in elementary schools uses the borrow concept. When subtraction is implemented by means of digital components. this method is found to be less efficient than the method that uses complements and addition as stated below. may be done as follows: Subtraction with r’s complement . both of base r. • This seems to be easiest when people perform subtraction with paper and pencil. In this method. we borrow a 1 from a higher significant position when the minuend digit is smaller than the corresponding subtrahend digit. The subtraction of two positive numbers (M-N).

inspect the result obtained in step 1 for an end carry: – if an end carry discard it. . • • The following examples illustrate the procedures using 10’s complement. – If an end carry does not occur take the r’s complement of the number obtained in step 1 and place a negative sign in front.• • Add the minuend M to the r’s complement of the subtrahend N.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • Subtract 72532-3250 M=72532 72532 N=03250 10’s complement of N + 96750 End carry 1 69282 Answer: 69282 Subtract (3250-72533)10 M=03250 N=72532 03250 10’s complement of N 27468 No carry 30718 Answer: -69282=(10’s complement of 30718) .

“end-around carry” as shown below. take the (r-1)’s complement of the number obtained in step 1 and place a negative sign infront. may be calculated in the following manner. called. • inspect the result obtained in step 1 for an end carry – if an end carry occurs. • Add the minuend M to the (r-1)’s complement of the subtrahend N. The subtraction of M-N. . both positive numbers in base r. add 1 to the least significant digit (end-around carry) – if an end does not occur.Subtraction with (r-1)’s complement • The procedure for subtraction with the (r-1)’s complement is exactly the same as oe variation.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Example: M= 72532 N=03250 9’s complement of N + 72532 96749 69281 1+ 69282 End around carry Answer: 69282 M= 03250 N= 72532 03250 9’s complement of N + 27467 No carry 30717 Answer:-69282= -(9’s complement of 30717) .

• • • • • • • • • • Using 1’s complement (a) M= 1010100 N= 1000100 1’s complement of N = 0111011 1010100 +0111011 End-around carry 1 0001111 1+ 0010000 Answer: 10000 – M=1000100 • N=1010100 • 1’s complement of N = 0101011 • 1000100 • + 0101011 • No carry 1101111 • Answer: -10000 = -(1’s complement of 1101111) • • • .

• Use 2’s complement to perform M-N with the given binary numbers. – M=1010100 • N=1000100 • • • – M= 1000100 1010100 2’s complement of N + 0111100 End carry 1 0010000 • N=1010100 • 1000100 • 2’s complement of N + 0101100 • No carry 0010000 • Answer: -10000 = -(2’s complement of 1110000) .

• The 1’s complement requires two arithmetic additions when an end-around carry occurs.• A comparison between 1’s and 2’s complements reveals the advantages and disadvantages of each. • The 1’s complement has the advantage of being easier to implement by digital components since the only thing that must be done is to change 0’s to 1’s and 1’s to 0’s. and • (2) by leaving all leading 0’s in the least significant positions and the first 1 unchanged. • During subtraction of two numbers by complement. and only then changing all 1’s into 0’s and all 0’s into 1’s. The 1’s complement has the additional disadvantage of possessing two arithmetic zeros: one with all 0’sand one with all 1’s. the 2’s complement is advantageous in that only arithmetic addition operation is required. • the implementation of the 2’s complement may be obtained in two ways: (1) by adding 1 to the least significant digit of the 1’s complement. Comparison between 1’s and 2’s Complements .

consider the subtraction of the two equal binary numbers 1100.• To illustrate this fact. which may complicate matters . Using 2’s complement: 1100 + 0100 +0000 while the 2’s complement has only one arithmetic zero. the 1’s complement zero can be positive or negative.1100=0 • • • • • • • • • • • • • Using 1’s complement: 1100 + 0011 + 1111 Complement again to obtain -0000.

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