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Presented By : AJAR

ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4

Origin Of Name ZigBee

The domestic honeybee, a colonial insect, lives in a hive that contains a queen, a few male drones, and thousands of worker bees. The survival, success, and future of the colony is dependent upon continuous communication of vital information between every member of the colony. The technique that honey bees use to communicate new-found food sources to other members of the colony is referred to as the ZigBee Principle. Using this silent, but powerful communication system, whereby the bee dances in a zigzag pattern, she is able to share information such as the location, distance, and direction of a newly discovered food source to her fellow colony members. Instinctively implementing the ZigBee Principle, bees around the world industriously sustain productive hives and foster future generations of colony members.

What is ZigBee
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ZigBee is a Ad-hoc networking technology for LR-WPAN Based On IEEE 802.15.4 standard that defines the PHY and Mac Layers for ZigBee. Intended for 2.45 Ghz , 868 Mhz and 915 Mhz Band. Low in cost ,complexity & power consumption as compared to competing technologies. Intended to network inexpensive devices Data rates touch 250Kbps for 2.45Ghz ,40 Kbps 915Mhz and 20Kbps for 868Mhz band.

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ZigBee Alliance

Worlds Most Common Frequency Bands

Market Requirements-I Global licence free ISM band operation  Unrestricted geographic use  RF penetration through walls & ceilings  Automatic/semi-automatic installation  Ability to add or remove devices  Possible voice support  .

5-$2.2kbps data throughput 10-75m coverage range (home/garden) Support for 32-255 nodes Support for 4 critical devices 4-100 co-located networks 0.5-2 year battery life Up to 5m/sec.Market Requirements-II         10k-115. (18kmph) permitted mobility Module cost: $1.5 in 2004/5! .

Home/Light Commercial spaces .

H2O detector Refrigeration case or appliance Equipment management services & Preventative maintenance Security services Lighting control Assembly line and work flow. HVAC Smoke. Office complexes Gas/Water/Electric meter.Industrial Environment          Warehouses. CO. cooling. Inventory Materials processing systems (heat. chemical) . Supermarkets. Fleet management. gas flow. Factory.

Application Sectors monitors sensors automation control TV VCR DVD/CD remote INDUSTRIAL & COMMERCIAL CONSUMER ELECTRONICS ZigBee PERSONAL HEALTH CARE LOW DATA-RATE RADIO DEVICES PC & PERIPHERALS consoles portables educational TOYS & GAMES HOME AUTOMATION security HVAC lighting closures .

ZigBee Market Shares .

1%) .ZigBee General Characteristics         Data rates of 20 kbps and up to 250 kbps Star or Peer-to-Peer network topologies Support for Low Latency Devices CSMA-CA Channel Access Handshaking Low Power Usage consumption 3 Frequencies bands with 27 channels Extremely low duty-cycle (<0.

ZigBee Statistics BAND COVERAGE DATA RATE CHANNELS 2.4 GHz 16 915 MHz 10 868 MHz ISM ISM Worldwide Americas 250 kbps 40 kbps Europe 20 kbps 1 .

868MHz/ 915MHz PHY Channel 0 Channels 1-10 2 MHz 868.4 GHz PHY Channels 11-26 5 MHz 2.3 MHz 902 MHz 928 MHz 2.4 GHz .

Low Power Statistics   Today’s definition: Low power: Battery operation for several years Some figures • • • • 1 year is 365*24 hours = 8760 hours AAA battery capacity is about 1300mAh AA battery capacity is about 3100mAh Coin cell lithium CR2032 capacity is about 230mAh   Note that peak current. AA: 35 years and CR2032: 2.(internal resistance) and leakage are also issues.6 years . but not today An average consumption of 10uA will last • AAA:15 years.

Comparison Chart .

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Bluetooth ZigBee Comparison fo PAN networks   ZigBee Protocol was developed to serve very different applications than Bluetooth and leads to tremendous optimizations in power consumption. with low latency available. • Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum allows devices to sleep without the requirement for close synchronization. Some of the key protocol differentiators are: ZigBee: • Very low duty cycle.  Bluetooth: .000 nodes. guaranteed latency. very long primary battery life. • Static and dynamic star and mesh networks. • Moderate duty cycle. >65. • Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum is extremely difficult to create extended networks without large synchronization cost. secondary battery lasts same as master. • Quasi-static star network up to seven clients with ability to participate in more than one network. • Very high QoS and very low. • Ability to remain quiescent for long periods without communications.

536 network (client) nodes • Optimized for timing-critical applications – Network join time: 30 ms (typ) – Sleeping slave changing to active: 15 ms (typ) – Active slave channel access time: 15 ms (typ) Network coordinator Full Function node Reduced Function node Communications flow Virtual links .Basic Network Charachteristics • 65.

ZigBee Layers .

Typical Implementation’s .

While still in the definition phase.What are the RAM/ROM requirements for the FFD and RFD MAC ? ZigBee requires a small amount of system resources substantially simplifying the process of designing wireless communications into products while reducing time to market and product cost. the estimated MAC size is as follows: RFD = 12KB to 16KB FFD = 16KB to 20KB. .

Device Addressing All devices have IEEE addresses  Short addresses can be allocated  Addressing modes:  • Network + device identifier (star) • Source/destination identifier (peer-peer) • Source/destination cluster tree + device identifier (cluster tree) .

IEEE 802.15.4 Device Definitions  Full function device (FFD) • Any topology • Network coordinator capable • Talks to any other device  Reduced function device (RFD) • Limited to star topology • Cannot become a network coordinator • Talks only to a network coordinator • Very simple implementation .

ZigBee Network Devices .

Star and Peer to Peer Networks .

Cluster Tree Network .

Network Architecture .

Types of PAN Non-Beacon Enabled PAN Un-slotted CSMA/CA  Beacon Enabled PAN Slotted CSMA/CA  .

SuperFrame Structures  A superframe is formed by the PAN coordinator to synchronize network reception and transmission. .

Communication Mechanisms-I .

Communication Mechanisms-II .

PHY/MAC Framing .

Network Layer .

Network Layer Framing .

Beacon Frame .

Data Frame .

Acknowledgement Frame .

MAC Command Frame .

Primitives for PHY Layer .

Mac Layer Primitives .

Robustness of Architecture CSMA/CA  Frame Acknowledgement  Data Verification  .

Security Access control  Data Encryption  Frame Integrity  Sequential Freshness  .

Security Modes Unsecured Mode  ACL Mode  Secured Mode  .

)  Concatenated PN sequences transmitted using O-QPSK      Bit to Symbol mapping Symbol to chip mapping (32 chip) Half-sine wave pulse shaping In-Phase (I) carrier even chips Quadrature Phase (Q) carrier odd chips .PHY Layer Modulation and Spreading 2.45 Ghz Band Characteristics  16-ary quasi-orthogonal modulation technique (4 information bits are used to select one out of 16 PN sequences.

5 k symbols/sec +/40ppm Adjacent channel rejection 0dbm Alternate channel rejection 30dbm .    -85dbm minimum receiver sensitivity 62.

PHY Layer Modulation and Spreading         868 and 915Mhz bands DSSS with BPSK Differential Encoding Bit to Chip Mapping (15 chip) BPSK Modulation Pulse Shaping Symbol rate 20ksymbols/sec Receiver sensitivity -94dbm Turn-around time=12 symbols .

Clear Channel Assessment parameters Energy Detection(10dbm threshold)  Link Quality Indication  • Receiver ED • Signal to Noise ration estimation  Carrier sense .

3 V) 34 17.7 20 56 56 ? Reciev e (mA) 14.7 19 57 57 ? Interf .1 3.5 37 19.5 4 1 1 5 Trans mit (mA) 60 (3.6 2.1 3.Chipset Comparisons Manuf acurer Atmel Freesc ale Chipco n Ember ZMD Comp XS OKI UBEC Chip AT86RF21 0 MC13192 CC2420 EM2420 ZMD4410 1 CX1540 ML7065 UZ2400 800/9 00 MHz yes no no no yes no no no 2400 MHz no yes yes yes no yes yes yes Vdd (V) 1.6 2.7 19.6 2.8 3.4 3.0 3.0 3.8 Standb y (µA) 1 3 ? 0.0 1.4 2. SPI SPI SPI SPI SPI SPI SPI SPI Othe r Iface no no no no Paral lel no no no Encr ypt no no yes yes no no no ? Remarks Packag e 48 QFN 32 QFN 7 x 7 48 QLP 7 x 7 48 QLP 48 MLF 48 48 48 QFN PHY PHY PHY PHY PHY + Thin MAC PHY + MAC PHY + MAC PHY + MAC .4 20.

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