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# Teaching of Mathematics in Form Two

TOPIC 1- OPERATIONS ON NUMBERS

Murugiah Velayutham

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TOPIC 1 – Concept of Integers
The basic idea of integers can be explained by using a horizontal number line or simply a number line.
Opposites

-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 Negative integers

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Positive integers

Murugiah Velayutham

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Definitions:
  The number line goes on forever in both directions. This is indicated by the arrows. Whole numbers greater than zero are called positive integers. These numbers are to the right of zero on the number line. Whole number less than zero are called negative integers. These numbers are to the left of zero on the number line. The integer zero is neutral. It is neither positive nor negative. Two integers are opposites if they are each the same distance away from zero but on the opposite sides of the number line.
Murugiah Velayutham 3

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For examples: • Reading a thermometer. Murugiah Velayutham 4 . • Bank statements.Negative Numbers Please emphasize to your students that we will use negative numbers in lots of different situations. • Parking car at a basement.

Reading a thermometer Can you notice that the scales on the thermometers are different? Murugiah Velayutham 5 .

What does the “Symbol” represents? Murugiah Velayutham 6 .Negative Numbers Buildings: Your students could have the experience of being in the lift of a building that goes underground.

Number Lines and Integers Write an integer to represent each of the following situations: 10 degrees above zero a loss of 16 dollars a gain of 5 points 8 steps backward Murugiah Velayutham 7 .

Comparing Values of Two Integers During the autumn when you wake up in the morning. it may go up to 10oC. But by lunch time. the temperature could be 3oC. What is the temperature increase? Murugiah Velayutham 8 .

What is the temperature decrease? Murugiah Velayutham 9 .Comparing Values of Two Integers In the early afternoon the temperature is 15oC. But by early evening the temperature goes down to 12oC.

Comparing Values of Two Integers During winter the temperature in the early morning could be -3oC. What is the temperature increase? Murugiah Velayutham 10 . But by lunch time it goes up to 6oC.

Activity 1. 2. Write an integer to represent the following situations: (a) Earnings of 15 ringgit (b) A loss of 20 marks in a maths quiz. What is the opposite of -231? 3.1. Ask your students to answer each of the following question: 1. What is the opposite of +1096? Murugiah Velayutham 11 .

Addition and Subtraction ADDING: In order to add by using the number line the students should start from the first number and move towards the right with the number of units as equal to the second number.CONCEPT OF INTEGERS 1. Example 1: Calculate -3 +5 Answer: (-3)+(5) = -3 + 5 = (+2) = 2 Murugiah Velayutham 12 .

Addition and Subtraction ADDING: Example 2: Gopal owes his friend Ah Seng RM3. If he borrows another RM6.CONCEPT OF INTEGERS 1. how much will he owe him altogether? Answer: (-3)+(-6) = -9 Murugiah Velayutham 13 .

The sum of 3 and 4 is 7. 3 and 4 make 7.ADDITION GLOSSARY Example: 3 + 4 =___ Words/ Terminology Add Altogether Increase More Statements 3 add 4 is 7. Altogether. If you increase 3 by 4 you get 7 is 3 more than 4. Plus Sum Total 3 plus 4 is 7. Murugiah Velayutham 14 . The total of 3 and 4 is 7.

SUBTRACTING: Mark the first number on the number line. Example 1: Calculate +2 -4 Answer: (+2)-(+4) = .2 Murugiah Velayutham 15 . Then move towards the left of it with the number of units as the second number given.

8 take away 5 is 3.5 =___ Words/ Terminology Decrease Difference Fewer than Less than Statements If you decrease 8 by 5 you get 3. Minus Reduce Subtract Take away 8 minus 5 is 3. 3 is 5 fewer than 8. 8 subtract 5 is 3. 3 is 5 less than 8. Murugiah Velayutham 16 .SUBTRACTION GLOSSARY Example: 8 . If you reduce 8 by 5 you get 3. The difference between 8 and 5 is 3.

Positive x negative = negative (+) x (-) = (-) Negative x positive = negative (-) x (+) = (-) Murugiah Velayutham 17 . Multiplication and Division (a) When we multiply two integers with the same or like signs.2. the result is always negative. the result is always positive. Positive x positive = positive (+) x (+) = (+) Negative x negative = positive (-) x (-) = (+) (b) When we multiply two integers with different or unlike signs.

Positive ÷ positive = positive (+) ÷ (+) = (+) Negative ÷ negative = positive (-) ÷ (-) = (+) (d) When we divide two integers with different or unlike signs.2. the result is always negative. the result is always positive. Multiplication and Division (c) When we divide two integers with the same signs. Positive ÷ negative = negative (+) ÷ (-) = (-) Negative ÷ positive = negative (-) ÷ (+) = (-) Murugiah Velayutham 18 .

Combined or Mixed Operations To perform any computation involving a combined or mixed operations. we introduced the BODMAS rule to the students.3. Bracket Power Of Division Multiplication Addition Subtraction Murugiah Velayutham 19 .

3.3) = (c) 3 x (-4) ÷ (-2) = (d) 10 ÷ (-6) x (-12) = (e) -6 + (8 ÷ (-2)) x 3 + 5 = Murugiah Velayutham 20 .12 – (-6) – (. Combined or Mixed Operations Example 1: Try to solve the following questions: (a) 7 – (-6 +2) + (-5) = (b) .

Murugiah Velayutham 21 . • Fractions to the left of zero has a negative value.Fractions and Decimals 1. • A positive fraction is a fraction with a “+”sign and normally is omitted. Positive and Negative Fractions Representation of Fractions on a Number Line 0 Please note that: • Fractions to the right of zero has a positive value. • A negative fraction is a fraction with a “-” sign.

• A negative decimal is a decimal with a “-” sign.Fractions and Decimals 2.2 +0. Murugiah Velayutham 22 .3 +0. • A positive decimal is a decimal with a “+”sign and normally is omitted.3 0 +0.5 -0. • Decimals to the left of zero has a negative value.5 Please note that: • Decimals to the right of zero has a positive value. Positive and Negative Decimals Representation of Decimals on a Number Line -0.

Fractions and Decimals To represent a decimal on a number line.0 The arrow is four parts to the right of 8 where it points at 8.4.0 8. Murugiah Velayutham 23 .4 on a number line. divide each segment of the number line into ten equal parts. Example : To represent 8. 8.4 9. divide the segment between 8 and 9 into ten equal parts.

Arithmetic Involving Integers. Fractions & Decimals 1. Example: Murugiah Velayutham 24 . Adding and Subtracting Decimals Be sure to line up the terms so that all the decimal points are in a vertical line.

2.284 (1 zero.000 x 0. 2 spaces right) 1000 x 0.6284 = 6. Multiplying Decimals Example 1: Example 2: 10 x 0.6284 = 62. 3 spaces right) 10.6284 = 628. 4 spaces right) 100.000 x 0. 1 space right) 100 x 0.4 (3 zeroes.6284 = 6284 (4 zeroes. 5 spaces right) Murugiah Velayutham 25 .840 (5 zeroes.84 (2 zeroes.6284 = 62.

Dividing Decimals Example 1: Murugiah Velayutham 26 .3.

Find the lowest common multiple of the denominators. and then simplify the fraction. Adding & Subtracting Fractions Adopt the following steps: 1. Murugiah Velayutham 27 . 2. Add the numerators to obtain the numerator of the answer. Write the answer either as an proper fraction or as a mixed number as appropriate. if possible.4. 3. Change any mixed numbers to improper fractions. 5. Express all fractions with the same denominator. 4.

2. Change any mixed numbers to improper fractions. 4. Multiplications of Fractions Adopt the following steps: 1.5. 3. Cancel any factors common to both the numerator and denominator. Write the answer either as a proper fraction or as a mixed number as appropriate. Murugiah Velayutham 29 . Multiply the remaining terms in the numerator and in the denominator.

Multiplication of Fractions Example: Answer: Murugiah Velayutham 30 .5.

6. Multiply the first fraction by the reciprocal of the second fraction In General: Example: Simplify Murugiah Velayutham 31 . 2. Division of Fractions Adopt the following steps: 1. Change mixed numbers into improper fractions.

fractions and decimals. Example: Solve the following Try also Self-check 1.7. Directed Numbers Directed numbers are those numbers that include integers.1 in page 23 Murugiah Velayutham 32 .

Example 1: A diver was diving 118 m below sea level. How far below sea level did he dive? Murugiah Velayutham 33 .Word Problems With Mixed Operations Once the students have mastered the concept well. the word problems.e. we can gradually introduce some examples that related to directed numbers in our daily life i. He went down 15 m and came up 40 m again.

Shamsul bought 12 pendrives and paid RM300. town B records a temperature of -7oC. the temperature rises to +33oC. How much money was returned to him? Murugiah Velayutham 34 . What is the difference between the two temperatures? Example 3: The price of 6 pendrives is RM132. In summer.Word Problems With Mixed Operations Example 2: During winter.

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