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Mr. Shailendra Pawaskar Shailendrapawaskar@gmail.



 Indian

Railways is looking for ways to move towards unwired applications. It real time data of seat vacant is available, then by the time the train reaches the next destination, the seats can be filled up again.


The information we have is not what we want, The information we want is not the information we need, The information we need is not available.


 Why

Do People Need Information?

• Individuals –

Entertainment and enlightenment
• Businesses –

Decision making, problem solving and control


It is scarce  It has a cost  It has alternative uses  There is an opportunity cost factor involved if one does not process information


To ensure effective and efficient decision - making leading to prosperity of the Organization.


 Data

vs. Information

• Data
 A “given,” or fact; a number, a statement, or a picture  Represents something in the real world  The raw materials in the production of information (Streams of raw facts representing events such as business transactions –
meaningless without structure)


• Information
 Data that have meaning within a context  Data in relationships  Data after manipulation
(Clusters of facts meaningful and useful to human beings in processes such as making decisions )

 Information

is the result of processing , manipulating and organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the person receiving it.


 Data


• Example: customer survey
 Reading through data collected from a customer survey with questions in various categories would be time-consuming and not very helpful.  When manipulated, the surveys may provide useful information.


 Knowledge

• is the awareness and understanding of facts, truths or

information gained in the form of experience or learning, or through introspection.
 Wisdom

• Is the result of learning and using knowledge for a

strategic advantage.


 Generating


• Computer-based ISs take data as raw material,

process it, and produce information as output.


 Input

: The capture or collection of raw data from within the organization or from its external environment for processing in an information system. : The conversion, manipulation, and analysis of raw input into a form that is more meaningful to humans. : The distribution of processed information to the people who will use it or to the activities for which it will be used.

 Processing

 Output

Relevant information is important to the decision maker  Accurate information is error free.  Complete information contains all of the important facts.  Timely information is available when needed.  Verifiable information can be checked to make sure it is correct.  Accessible information can be obtained by the users who need it.  Secure information is safe from unauthorized users.


 Information

in Context

Characteristics of useful information


Usefulness of information depends on quality and accessibility

BUT….  Usefulness also depends on purpose and context  Information comes in different forms - not all of which can be quantified: hard vs. soft data  Ownership is difficult to maintain  More is not always better


 What Is a System? • System: A set of components that work together to

achieve a common goal
• Subsystem: One part of a system where the products

of more than one system are combined to reach an ultimate goal
• Closed system: Stand-alone system that has no

contact with other systems
• Open system: System that interfaces with other


Several subsystems make up this corporate accounting system.


 Information

and Managers

• Systems thinking
 Creates a framework for problem solving and decision making.  Keeps managers focused on overall goals and operations of business.


Qualities of humans and computers that contribute to synergy

 The

Benefits of Human-Computer Synergy

• Synergy
 When combined resources produce output that exceeds the sum of the outputs of the same resources employed separately

• Allows human thought to be translated into efficient

processing of large amounts of data


Components of an information system



The Four Stages of Data Processing
• Input: Data is collected and entered into computer. • Data processing: Data is manipulated into

information using mathematical, statistical, and other tools.
• Output: Information is displayed or presented. • Storage: Data and information are maintained for later


Accumulate Knowledge



Format, Filter, Summarize


Interpret, Design, Act



An Information System is
• the set of interrelated components • that collect, process, store and distribute information • used by/support one or more business process.

• Input: The collection of raw data. • Processing: The manipulation of data into information. • Output: Distributing valuable information.

Includes both technology and people

Information Technology is the hardware, telecommunications and software that make information systems possible.







 For

an organisation to survive and prosper

• More locations (networking, Internet) • New products and services • Improve jobs and work flows:  Efficiency  Cost  Ethical and social issues


 Worldwide


• Global economy • Knowledge- or information-based society • Business enterprise

• Digital firm


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Buy film in a store Load your camera Take pictures Take roll of film to store for processing Pickup the film when ready Select specific photos for enlargement Mail to family and friends


1st Generation Digital Photography

Old economy except 6 and 7 were replaced by using a scanner and emailing

2nd Generation Digital Photography

Use a Digital Camera, no film, no processing.

3rd Generation Digital Photography

Your Digital Camera is now your mobile phone, in your binoculars or a palmtop computer.

 Crossing

International Borders Commercial Photo.

• Biometrics – finger print in Israel. • Scanning and face matching in Australia
 Supplying  Paying

• Orbis Inc. – Australia

for Transportation

• Smart cards
 Shopping

from home


• More wireless cell phone than land lines • More business registered dot-com sites • FedEx & UPS deliver huge amount of

packages • Massive shift in media market
 Newspaper  Blog  New form of customer feedback  Personal publishing


• E-Business & Internet advertising  eBay, Google • New security and accounting laws  Business requires to keep emails for 5 years


 Globalization


• Reduce the cost to operate on a global scale  Shop in a worldwide marketplace  Obtain info reliably 24 hours a day  Find low cost suppliers in other nations  Communicate real time with minimal cost
 Skype, instant messages, emails


 Growing

percentage of economy relies upon import and export  Need to operate globally  IS can provide global trading Infrastructure


 The

emerging digital Firm

• Digital firm  Business relationships with customers, suppliers, and employees are digitally enabled  Core business processes are accomplished through digital network
 Business process:
 The set of logical related tasks and behaviors  Order, customer service








MIS is a set of organized procedures which when executed provide information to support decision making Henry C. Lucas MIS is a combination of human and computer based resources which result in collection, storage, retrieval, communication and use of data for the purpose of efficient management for operations and for business planning. Kelly A system to convert data from internal and external sources into information to communicate the information in an appropriate form to managers at all levels, in all functions to make timely and effectively decisions for planning directing and controlling the activities for which they are responsible. – Lucey


 Management

Oriented  Management Directed  Integrated  Subsystem  Common Database  Consistency  Heavy Planning  Contemporary  Flexible  Reliable  Simple/easy to understand

Handling voluminous data  Confirmation of Validity of data and transactions  Quick search and retrieval  Mass storage  Communication of information to user on time  Fulfilling the changing needs of the information.  Helps in making quantitative as well as qualitative decision-making  Takes care of complexities and risks of business environment  Give both reactive and proactive response


 Defined

as a Computer based Information


system to support the decision making function in the organization. best out of the information system to facilitate the decision making process. system based on the database of the organization evolved for the purpose of providing information to the people in the organization.

 Getting


Information is Blood and MIS is Heart of any business activity.


MIS Functions Data Collection Planning Directing Managerial Functions Controlling

Data Storage



Evaluating Decision Making SCM CRM ERP Marketing Enterprise Management Finance Knowledge Management HRM IT

Organizational Functions



 Economy : • Global Perspective  Industrial Economies : • Research and knowledge possessed by org. • strategic resource – Info and info processing. • To survive and succeed.  Business Enterprise : • Virtual business entity  Digital Firm : • Fully relying on system • Non – Expert as expert • Huge data


iFuture Group Educational institute is about to implement new technology for student’s attendance.
   

There are 50 faculty members most of them taking lecture every day. No. of courses / subjects taken by each faculty member is between 3 to 6, in some case 7. Now , respective Faculty member is suppose to enter the attendance daily for their class. For that Six computers are allocated to them for entering the attendance. 1. You are required to check the daily attendance entered by each faculty member. 2. Also to check whether the computer allocated to them are working properly.

Discuss : As a IT Manager
 



 Define  Why

MIS ? List the advantages of MIS?

an MIS is need for an organization? of valuable information, with

 Characteristic

 Role

of MIS in an Organization is information systems? Give Examples.

 What