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DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING & DISTRIBUTED DATABASES

DISTRIBUTED DATABASES
• When the computer system and the databases are found at one location, they are called centralized databases,
• when they are scattered they are called distributed database systems

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DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING
• Distributed processing can be defined as a system in which both computer power and data occur at more than one site, and application programs are run at more than one site • Earlier distributed processing systems were considered uneconomical because of the economies of scale associated with large centralized computer systems
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DISTRIBUTED DATABASES
• When processing is distributed, then data too needs to be distributed and made available at the different locations. • There are two ways of doing this
– Replicated databases - provide duplicates of all data at all sites – Partitioned databases - data may be divided into segments and made available to diff locations. Partition could be along functional lines, sales, finance etc or geographical lines
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ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES
• Distributed databases reduce costs of transferring data to diff sites • Provide faster response time for filling forms etc. • However problems of control are compounded • Problems of security are increased • Data redundancy occurs and consistency is compromised • When managers download data from a centralized database to their own computers, it is no longer centralized
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REASONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION
• • • • • • • • Improved response time Reduced costs Improved accuracy Reduced mainframe costs Smoother growth Increased reliability Resource sharing Increased user satisfaction
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CONCERNS FOR MANAGERS
• • • • • • • Lack of professional MIS staff Standardization Documentation Data loss Security Data consistency System maintenance

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AN EFFECTIVE SYSTEM
• Distributed processing systems have to be managed carefully in order to be effective. The systems should:
– Be easy to use.
• Users should not have to know where the data is, or which processors need to be used

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CLIENT / SERVER COMPUTING
• This is most commonly used now a days. The application processing is divided between a client which is generally a PC and a server, which may be a file server on a local area network or a minicomputer or a mainframe. • The client processes run on the PC and make requests of the server processes, which may run on several platforms

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SQL SERVERS
• An SQL server is a software package that runs on a dedicated networked computer • The SQL server computer usually devotes all its energies to managing the database software and does not handle other network tasks • SQL server software performs database applications faster and more reliably than typical LAN based database management software • A client workstation may ask SQL server software to send all records that match certain selection parameters. The SQL server software will process the request at the server and send only those records that fit the parameters • In client server computing, the back end processor provides access to the database and a variety of database services such as remote connectivity and data security 4/29/2012 10

DOWNSIZING
• Makes available the data in any of the organizations databases to any one with a microcomputer workstation • Because of their power and efficiency, client server computing systems running on LANs have been replacing mainframe bases information systems in most organizations • Most organizations are downsizing to LAN based client server computer systems from older legacy systems
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THANK YOU

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Practice Questions
• Q1. Explain the term distributed processing? How does distributed processing differ from a distributed database.

• Q2. Is it necessary for organization to implement distributed processing? Support your answer by Giving Reason
• Q3. What are the two basic ways to distribute database? Explain how this method differs? • Q4. Why might an organization want to have a distributed database system? • Q5. What problem distributed database system might generate for an organization? • Q6. Explain how client / server information systems can help managers
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