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Mr. Shailendra Pawaskar Shailendrapawaskar@gmail.

com

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 What

is Information Technology?

• Any form of technology used by people to handle

information.
 What

are Information Systems?

• Integrated components processing, storing and

disseminating information in an organisation. • Interdisciplinary study of systems that provide information to users in organisations.
Pyle, I.C. & Illingworth, V. (Eds) (1996). Oxford Dictionary of Computing, 4 th Edition. Oxford / New York: Oxford University Press

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 What

is Information Systems?

• interrelated components working together to

collect, process, store, and disseminate information to support decision making, coordination, control, analysis, and visualization in an organization.
 What

are Information Systems?

• the foundation upon which IS are built..
Pyle, I.C. & Illingworth, V. (Eds) (1996). Oxford Dictionary of Computing, 4 th Edition. Oxford / New York: Oxford University Press

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Support of Strategic Advantage Support of Managerial Decision Making

Support of Business Operations

1950-1960 Data Processing

1960-1970 Management Reporting

1970-1980

1980-1990

1990-2000 Electronic Commerce

Decision Support

Strategic & End User

Electronic Data Processing - TPS

Management Information Systems

Decision Support Systems - Ad hoc Reports

End User Computing Exec Info Sys Expert Systems SIS

Electronic Business & Commerce -Internetworked E-Business & Commerce

Data Processing: 1950s • Transaction processing, record keeping, traditional accounting applications Management Reporting: 1960s • MIS – predefined management reports for decision-making purposes Decision Support: 1970s • DSS – interactive ad hoc support of the managerial decision-making process Strategic and End User Support: 1980s • EUC, Executive Information Systems, Expert Systems, Strategic Information Systems Electronic Business and E-Commerce: 1990s -

The Electronic Business
The Internet Suppliers and Other Business Partners Procurement, Distribution, and Logistics Extranets Company Boundary

Engineering & Research

Manufacturing and Production

Accounting, Finance, and Management

Intranets
Advertising Extranets Consumer and Business Customers Sales Customer Service

Type of IS
Office Automation system TPS / OLTP Transaction Processing System MIS DSS – Decision Support System ESS – Executive Support System KS / ES Knowledge based / Expert system AI – Artificial Intelligent System

Input
Letters and Documents Day-to-day

Processing
Communication, Sophistication Sorting , Listing, Merging. Updating Analysis, interpretation Interactive Processing Graphics, simulations, Interactive Rules based analysis (if… then) Human analytical aspect

Output
Documents, Reports Detailed Reports

User
Clerical Operations staff

Summary Information Analytical Data Exceptional Internal + External Data Limited data

Summary and Exception report Special Reports, Query Responses Projections, Complex, Query responses Diagnostic Reports Exceptional Diagnosis / Findings

Middle Managers Professional staff Managers Senior Management Top Management, Top Professional (Doctors) Critical Exception handlers

Generic Data

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Type of IS
Office Automation system TPS / OLTP Transaction Processing  System

Input
Letters and Documents Day-to-day

Processing
Communication, Sophistication Sorting , Listing, Merging. Updating

Output
Documents, Reports Detailed Reports

User
Clerical Operations staff

Primary level MIS Comprised of office automation Summary Analysis, Summary and Middle Managers  Information interpretation Exception report DSSequipments – Decision Analytical Interactive Special Reports, Professional staff Support System Data Processing Query Responses Managers  – Executive ESS Limited scope – junior level Exceptional Graphics, Projections, Senior Support System Internal + simulations, Complex, Query Management External Data Interactive  Not major significant dataresponses process – so KS / ES Limited data Rules based Diagnostic Top Management, Knowledge based / Reports Top Professional input and output analysis (if… similar in OAS. looks
Expert system then) (Doctors) AI – Artificial Intelligent System Generic Data Human analytical aspect Exceptional Diagnosis / Findings Critical Exception handlers

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Type of IS
Office Automation system TPS / OLTP Transaction Processing System MIS

Input
Letters and Documents Day-to-day

Processing
Communication, Sophistication Sorting , Listing, Merging. Updating

Output
Documents, Reports Detailed Reports

User
Clerical Operations staff

Analysis, Summary Middle Managers Day-to-day Summary business transactions and Information interpretation Exception report DSSStructured framework - Repetitive business Analytical Interactive Special Reports, Professional staff  – Decision Support System Data Processing Query Responses Managers ESS activity – Executive Exceptional Graphics, Projections, Senior Support System Internal + simulations, Complex, Query Management  TPS concentrates on validating, capturing and External Data Interactive responses KS / storing the Limited data ES Rules based Diagnostic transaction data, segregating Top Management, them, Knowledge based / analysis (if… Reports Top Professional Expert system then) (Doctors) updating the database, generating reports, etc. AI – Artificial Intelligent Generic Data Human analytical Exceptional Critical Exception  Eg. E-commerce System aspect Diagnosis / handlers

Findings

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Type of IS
Office Automation system TPS / OLTP Transaction Processing System MIS DSS – Decision  Support System

Input
Letters and Documents Day-to-day

Processing
Communication, Sophistication Sorting , Listing, Merging. Updating Analysis, interpretation Interactive Processing

Output
Documents, Reports Detailed Reports

User
Clerical Operations staff

Summary Information Analytical Data

Summary and Exception report Special Reports, Query Responses

Middle Managers Professional staff Managers

Reports – managerial decision making process ESS Help in making structural (saves time) and semiExceptional Graphics, Projections, Senior  – Executive Support System Internal + simulations, Complex, Query Management External Data (reduce responses structural decisions Interactive risk and complexity) KS / ES Limited data Rules based Diagnostic Top Management,  Used by middle level managers. Knowledge based / analysis (if… Reports Top Professional Expert system then) (Doctors)  Involves high volume of transaction data. AI – Artificial Intelligent Generic Data Human analytical Exceptional Critical Exception
System aspect Diagnosis / Findings handlers

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Type of IS
Office Automation system TPS / OLTP Transaction Processing System MIS DSS – Decision Support System ESS – Executive  Support System

Input
Letters and Documents Day-to-day

Processing
Communication, Sophistication Sorting , Listing, Merging. Updating Analysis, interpretation Interactive Processing Graphics,

Output
Documents, Reports Detailed Reports

User
Clerical Operations staff

Summary Information Analytical Data Exceptional

Summary and Exception report Special Reports, Query Responses Projections, Complex, Query responses Diagnostic Reports Exceptional Diagnosis / Findings

Middle Managers Professional staff Managers Senior Management Top Management, Top Professional (Doctors) Critical Exception handlers

What is DSS. + Internal simulations, External Data Interactive  Features ofLimited data Rules based DSS. KS / ES Knowledge based / of DSS. analysis (if…  Benefits Expert system then)  Applications of DSS. AI – Artificial Intelligent Generic Data Human analytical System aspect  Interactive systems for DSS.

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DSS is an interactive , computer-based system that helps decision-makers to utilize the information to solve the organizational problems. Offers support to improve the decision-making process. DSS helps manager to decide the input data, analysis tools, output, etc. DSS offers an interactive environment for users and helps to develop optimal decision-making strategy in a given situation.
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Helps in solve unstructured business problems.
  

DSS does not aim at any specific type of decision. User friendly interface Provides better ways of presenting information. (reports & Charts) DSS offers complete control over the information systems
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Evaluation of a larger number of alternatives in DSS reduce the time and effort in collecting and analyzing the data for different operations. Modeling and forecasting becomes easy for managers to get more insight into the business process using DSS. Usefulness in intra-group and inter-group communication because it makes information possible to explain to others that how one has arrived at a particular conclusion. Facilities for quicker analysis of data thereby, improving the speed of response in unexpected decision-making situation. DSS provide in-depth analysis of data and therefore, more effective use of data resource to take decisions.
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DSS helps in various application areas to a large extent for the top management support, training of management and various decision-making situations.
Production : - cost estimation and analysis - production planning and scheduling. - making or buy product decision - inventory planning - control of manpower - etc. Finance : - capital budgeting - financial planning and analysis - tax planning - strategic financial planning - cash and working capital mngt - foreign exchange risk mngt - etc

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 Helps

in providing the best solution to a particular problem that can applied in the concerned department of the organization. system for DSS is created using various query and high level programming language. as SQL, Visual Basic.

 Interactive

 Such

 These

language prompts and help to make commands to retrieve the information with a user-friendly interface
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Assumes that people behave rationally and focuses on creating systems with the best technical capabilities

TECHNICAL APPROACHES
COMPUTER SCIENCE MANAGEMENT SCIENCE OPERATIONS RESEARCH

MIS

SOCIOLOGY

PSYCHOLOGY

POLITICAL
SCIENCE

BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES
Main emphasis is on the political , organizational, and human elements that impact information systems. What seems rational and technically correct may not work due to behavioral elements in the organization.
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 

Q1. Brief the different types of Information Systems. Q2. Explain DSS and give out the difference between DSS and MIS.

Q3. Distinguish between Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence.
Q4. Difference between MIS, TPS,DSS and ESS. Q5. List the benefits of DSS. Q6. What are the application areas of DSS.
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