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Transfer of Training

Lesson 5

Transfer of Training
Transfer of training refers to trainees effectively and continually applying what they learned in training on their jobs. The work environment plays an important role in ensuring that transfer of training occurs. Transfer of training is also influenced by trainee characteristics and training design.

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Transfer of Training
• • • • • • Provide focused, on-the-job examples Arrange job-related practice exercise Launch team discussions Maintain motivation and action Pre-screen learners Include Management and Staff in the training process

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A Model Of The Transfer Process
Trainee Characteristics Motivation Ability

Training Design Create a Learning Environment Apply Theories of Transfer

Learning Retention

Generalization and Maintenance

Work Environment Climate for Transfer Management and Peer Support Opportunity to Perform Technological Support

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Transfer of Training Theories
Theory
Identical elements

Emphasis
Training environment is identical to work environment

Appropriate Conditions
Work environment features are predictable and stable

Type of Transfer
Near

Stimulus generalization

General principles are applicable to many different work situations

Work environment is unpredictable and highly variable

Far

Cognitive theory

Meaningful material and coding schemes enhance storage and recall of training

All types of training and environments

Near and far

Obstacles in the work environment that inhibit transfer of training:
Work Conditions (Trainee has difficulty using new knowledge, skills, or behavior)     Time pressures Inadequate equipment Few opportunities to use skills Inadequate budget

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Obstacles in the work environment that inhibit transfer of training: (continued)
Lack of Peer Support (Peers do not support use of new knowledge, skills, or behavior)  Discourage use of new knowledge and skills on the job  Unwilling to provide feedback  See training as a waste of time

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Obstacles in the work environment that inhibit transfer of training: (continued)
Lack of Management Support (Managers do not reinforce training or provide opportunities to use new knowledge, skills, or behavior)     Do not accept ideas or suggestions that are learned in training Oppose use of skills learned in training Communicate that training is a waste of time Unwilling to provide feedback and reinforcement for trainees to use training content

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Work Environment Characteristics Influencing Transfer of Training:
Climate for Transfer
Manager Support

Peer Support

Technological Support

Opportunity to Perform

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Characteristics of a Positive Climate for Transfer of Training:
Supervisors and co-workers encourage and set goals for trainees to use new skills and behaviors acquired in training. Task cues:  Characteristics of a trainee’s job prompt or remind him to use new skills and behaviors acquired in training. Feedback consequences:  Supervisors support the application of new skills and behaviors acquired in training.

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Characteristics of a Positive Climate for Transfer of Training: (continued)
Lack of punishment:  Trainees are not openly discouraged from using new skills and behaviors acquired in training. Extrinsic reinforcement consequences:  Trainees receive extrinsic rewards for using new skills and behaviors acquired in training. Intrinsic reinforcement consequences:  Trainees receive intrinsic rewards for using new skills and behaviors acquired in training.

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Levels of Management Support for Training:
Level
Teaching in Program Practice Skills Reinforcement Participation Encouragement Acceptance

HIGH SUPPORT

Description
Participate as Trainer
Allow Trainees Opportunity to Practice

Discuss Progress with Trainees; Ask How to Support Trainees’ Use of New Capabilities
Attend Session

Accommodate Attendance at Training Through Rearranging Work Schedule; Endorse Employees’ Attending Training

LOW SUPPORT

Permit Employees to Attend Training; Acknowledge Importance of Training
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Designing training module
Designing a training program involves a number of decision regarding how it will be delivered based on the subject it is meant to address and its constrains. Decision on the type of training is based on: -technical requirement - cost consideration -time commitment

Types of training modules - Instructor led training - Self- directed training
Off the shelf Standardized training programmes Customized training programmes Distance Learning

Designing training module
Types of training modules 1) Instructor led training
2) Self- directed training
- Off the shelf Standardized training programmes - Customized training programmes - Distance Learning

Designing training module
1) Instructor led training 65% of corporate training is in traditional classroom setting with instructor delivering the lecture Advantages - Human interaction leading to enthusiasm - Response and evaluation of the training can be immediately done.

Designing training module
B) Standard Training Program Advantages i) Allow users to study and practice at their convenience ii) Repeat section of the study material and often as they need. iii) Study at their own pace iv) Opportunity to practice v) Can be assessed from any location vi) Can reach large audience and cost effective Disadvantage i) Allows minimum interaction

Designing training module
Off –the shelf Standard Training Program: Eg: Induction, Accounting skills Advantages: i) Limited application ii) Quick to implement Disadvantage: i) No audience analysis ii) Learning might not be retained

Designing training module
Customized Training Programmes: Advantages I. Better content and Process II. More Flexibility , better relevance