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Two Day National Course for Executives

4/29/2012

Prashant Srivastava

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Hazards of electricity
 Shock
 Burns  Arc Flash

 Arc Blast
 Hazards from static charge  Secondary Hazards

All of above may cause injury and death.

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Shock
Factors which determine severity of shock  Level and type of Voltage  Current  Path through body  Duration of shock Even a voltage as low as 50 Volts and current as low as 10 mA can be fatal.

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Voltage  AC or DC  Level  Frequency 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 4 .

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Current  Low current < 3mA – Tingling  Slightly higher current <10 mA.Mild to severe shock  Still higher > 10mA– Cause paralysis. 30mA – Respiratory Paralysis  Still higher> 75mA – May affect electrical activity of heart like fibrillation  >4A – Tissue burning 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 6 . Can not release live part due to temporary muscular paralysis causing increased duration of shock  Still Higher.

Path Through Body  Through skin only.Less dangerous  Through Heart can cause heart failure  Through Respiratory system – Cause breathing paralysis. 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 7 .

Duration  Long duration can cause burning of tissues  But even small duration of current passing through vital organs can cause its failure leading to death or permanent damage. 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 8 .

 Sense leakage to earth and trip supply 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 9 .Shock Protection Strategies that are used  Reduce shock voltage to very low level by earthing  Reduce Shock current by increasing resistance between man and touched part and between man and earth.

Shock protection by rubber gloves and mats Class of rubber gloves and mats  Class 00 ((Only gloves) For use up to 500 VAC phase to phase  Class 0 For use up to 1000 VAC phase to phase  Class 1 For use up to 7500 VAC phase to phase  Class 2 For use up to 1700 VAC phase to phase  Class 3 For use up to 26500 VAC phase to phase  Class4 For use up to 36000 VAC phase to phase 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 10 .

Arc Flash Arc flash is caused by one of the several reasons  Dielectric breakdown causes short circuit and limiting impedance is low.  When air becomes superheated and metal vaporizes  When high current is broken 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 11 .

Conditions conducive to Arc Flash  High voltage  High current  Overheating of conductors  Large inductance in the circuit 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 12 .

Dangers of Arc flash  Arc Flash can cause many of the following injuries  Shock  Burns  Blindness  Deafness  Can burn almost any type of clothes increasing danger of secondary burns. Arc Flash can cause second degree burns at very large distance. 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 13 .

Specially designed panel doors are needed. 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 14 . shatter insulators and even knock down walls  Throw molten metal over large distance  Can puncture ear drum Normal panel doors are not designed to withstand Arc Blast pressure.Arc Blast  In confined space Arcing heats up air rapidly  Air Expands rapidly  Can blow out panel doors.

4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 15 . Skin can not grow without grafting.Superficial burns on the skin.Skin and growth glands are also burnt. Usually leaves scar. Leaves scar and some permanent damage.  First degree Burn. Growth of skin is slow. Back and limbs.Burns Electric shock causes local burns but Arc Flash can cause extensive burns in face. Painful but no permanent damage.  Third degree burn.Skin and growth tissues are burnt.  Second degree burn. Chest.

Hazards from Static Charge  Static charge accumulates on human body specially     during winter by rubbing against clothes It may also be passed through touching charged surface Rapid transfer of electric charge to and from human body can give severe electric shock Electric charge develops when liquid passes through pipe lines both on liquid as well as in pipe line Specially hazardous when transferring petroleum or other easily ignitable liquids. Prashant Srivastava 16 4/29/2012 .

 Transfer of material  Running on belt conveyor  Pneumatic conveying 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 17 .Hazards from Static Charge Static charge accumulates during  Agitation or mixing of liquid or solid material.

Hazards of static electricity Filling inflammable liquid 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 18 .

Arc Flash can start secondary fires. on live parts causing arc flash Short circuits can cause fires leading to large scale deaths and injuries.Secondary Hazard  Shock can cause person to fall down from height and     cause fractures or death Person may fall on the live conductor and continue receiving shock till help is available Person may drop tools etc. Prashant Srivastava 19 4/29/2012 .

Reasons for Electrical Accidents  Ignorance  Misuse  Overload  Switch in neutral instead of phase in 1 f circuits  Sparking due to loose contacts  Not proper grounding  Inappropriate design or workmanship  Bad maintenance  Use of earth in place of neutral 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 20 .

Reasons for Electrical Accidents  Wrong instruments or instruments in bad condition  Improper PPE  Unnecessary risk by working on live parts  Un insulated tools  Bypassing protection  Improper display of hazard  Improper of missing fence in hazardous areas  Not testing residual voltage before starting work  Ignoring visual or available information about status 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 21 .

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Incidence of Arc Flash An arc flash can occur while. bus bars.  Racking in breaker  Touching any live part by a tool  Spontaneously when air and metal parts become overheated in closed space like panel boards 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 23 . switches etc.g.  Doing work on live system e.

 The current further heats up air through which it passes and creates state of Plasma or ionized air.Properties of Arc Flash Arc is a very heavy current passing through air under certain conditions.  This current creates strong thermo-magnetic force.  This plasma is conductive and supports flow of current.000 o K 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 24 .  This force moves plasma through space  Temperature at the core of arc can be > 20.

Properties of Arc Flash  Large part of heat is radiated to large distance  It can inflict second degree burns at a distance of even 12 feet  All type of clothing can be set on fire by arc flash  Molten metal flies at large distances  In oil immersed devices like transformers. arc flash on bushings can set fire to oil and destroy entire transformer and even may set establishment on fire 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 25 .

 Mechanical.Flash Energy  Light.Intense light is emitted which can cause loss of sight temporarily  Heat is intense in the form of radiation and conduction to the person in touch.In form of blast Heat energy intensity is measured as cal/cm2 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 26 .

Incident Flash Energy Defined as Arc Flash energy experienced by a person Depends upon  Bolted short circuit current  System Voltage  Distance from arcing electrode  Duration of fault  Absorbent coefficient of the victim  Box effect 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 27 .

Factors affecting injury by Arc Flash 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 28 .

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this can be considered a distance at which incident energy level is 1. 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 30 . shock protection techniques and equipment is required.5 cal/cm2. same protection is to be used as with live contact.Flash Protection boundaries  Restricted Approach Boundary.  Flash Protection boundary.A shock protection boundary to be crossed by only qualified persons.A shock protection boundary to be crossed by only qualified persons. For fault clearing time less than 0.2 cal/cm2 for fault clearing time of 0. When crossed.  Prohibited Approach boundary. When crossed.Distance at which incident energy levels equals 1.1 sec or more.1 sec.

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Class of Arc Flash Hazard The NFPA 70E 2004 standard provides 5 Arc Rating levels  Class 0 for incident energy up to 1.2 cal/cm2  Class 1 for incident energy up to 4 cal/cm2  Class 2 for incident energy up to 8 cal/cm2  Class 3 for incident energy up to 25 cal/cm2  Class 4 for incident energy up to 40 cal/cm2 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 32 .

Arc Flash Hazard Analysis Reasons for arc flash Hazard Analysis  To know hazard level at each location  To know safe boundaries for approach  To determine suitable clothing for approaching near live area  To know suitable PPE for workers to work on live parts 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 33 .

illumination etc. ingress.g. egress.Arc Flash Hazard Analysis Necessary information for doing Arc Flash hazard analysis. 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 34 .  Bolted fault current at each location  Clearing time for the source side protective device  Working distance for energized work  ATPV (Arc Thermal Performance Value) for PPE combinations use at site  Site specific issues e. working space.

cadickcorp.  IEEE standard 1584-2002 comes with software  Other free wares are available on the net  Check www.com 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 35 .com and www.Steps required to do Arc Flash Hazard Analysis  Site assessment and data gathering  Short circuit analysis  Protective device coordination  Use of software for detailed analysis.oberoncompany.

Arc Flash Labeling  Depending upon Arc Flash analysis Various locations will have different classes of Arc Flash Hazard  Labels clearly describing hazard class. Restricted approach. Incident Energy level. Flash hazard boundary. Limited approach. is prominently put at locations in a way that it can not be missed by workmen. Prohibited approach. 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 36 . Recommended clothing etc.

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One overall or long jacket and other face shield  Be made from Flame Resistant (FR) material  Gloves are also of same material. Additionally.  Be in two part.PPE for Arc Flash Material for Arc flash resistant clothing should. rubber gloves are put on over this glove for electrical insulation  Typically heavier grade NOMEX or PBI is used  ATPV should be 40cal/cm2 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 38 .

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Training in safety Precautions to be taken Tools permitted to be used Instruments permitted to be used PPE training 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 41 .Training  Workers who are required to do hot work on live parts      are to be trained for this type of work.

Mitigation of Arc Flash Hazard Strategies  Reduction of bolted fault current  Reduction in response time of Protection system  Increase of working distance  Reduced relay settings during hot work  Arc Detection devices 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 42 .

Use Current limiting Fuse 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 43 .Reduction of Bolted current.

Use Current limiting Fuse  Fuse should clear fault within half cycle  Reduces voltage sag duration  Reduces transients and thus improves power quality 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 44 .Reduction of Bolted current.

Actual and Prospective Voltage: Source and fuse 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 45 .Reduction of fault current Current.

Reduction in response time  By protective relay coordination. correct the response time  Use of lower operating time relays  Bus differential protection  Use of lower settings reducing operating time 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 46 .

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4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 48 .Increase working distance  Incident energy is inversely proportional to square of distance.  Hence increasing working distance can increase safety immensely  Distance can be increased by. Using remote operated racking. remote operated breaker closing and opening and using extension tools and hot sticks.

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4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 50 . one for normal operation and another for Hot Work  SCADA control can also implement this program. (Instantaneous settings just above peak demand)  Least expensive solution  Numerical relays can have two programs .Reduced relay settings during hot work  Temporarily reduce relay settings during hot work.

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 To protect a zone optical fiber cable without outer sheath is run throughout the protected zone.  Optical sensors. of start of the flash.  Optical sensor can send signal within 2. 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 52 . sense beginning of arc flash and give signal to trip coil of breaker.Arc Detection devices  Principle  Arc results in very bright light flash whose intensity is much higher than sun light or any other illumination used. based upon sudden increase in intensity of light.5 msec.

Optical Fiber Cable Routing 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 53 .

Arc Detection and Relay block diagram 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 54 .

Tripping time comparison 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 55 .

Incident energy reduction 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 56 .

Arc Detection relay covering a zone 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 57 .

A Zero Potential surface 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 58 .

 To create a return path for neutral currents  To reduce transients  To reduce harmonics 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 59 .Reasons for earthing  To create a reference voltage  To create a safe zero potential surface.

4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 60 .Earthing Pit  Earth surface has high resistance and therefore we have to create a pit which maintains low resistance bonding with earth and brings out a low resistance connection which can be distributed.  Neutral has to be earthed either directly or through grounding resistors to create reference voltage other wise lines can assume very high voltages which can be a serious safety threat.

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Requirements from earthing  For substations and industrial users. Earthing resistance     should be between 0. Many pits should be connected together to create a low resistance path for large short circuit current without creating large voltage drop Every motor. panel and switchgear’s body should be earthed at two places. saline water should be added to the pit. Neutral of generators and Transformers should be connected to two earthing pit which are independent of body earthing pits.0 ohms If resistance is higher.1 ~ 1. Prashant Srivastava 62 4/29/2012 .

Some important notes  Water pipes should not be used for earthing  Lead sheathing and armor of cables should be earthed.  Earthing electrode should not get corroded.  Wherever RCC poles are used as in substations. Aluminum can be used above ground connections 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 63 . GI or tinned copper is preferred. Four poles can be tied with earthing strip and then connected to earthing pit.

Substation Earthing Criteria  Low earthing resistance  Low step potential  Low touch potential 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 64 .

5 ohm LV Installation up to 1.Earthing resistance requirements  EHV AC Installations      <0.5 ohm MV installation between 1~33kV <<0.0 kV <1~2 ohm Large Residential buildings < 2 ohms Individual residential bldg.01 ohm HV installations >33 kV <0. < 4 ohm 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 65 .

Step potential hazard 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 66 .

Touch Potential Hazard 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 67 .

Earthing mesh 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 68 .

Transmission Line earthing EHT Lines  110 kV – One aerial earthing wire  220 kV lines – Two aerial earthing wires to be run through towers  At least at 4 towers every mile.  HT Lines  Earthing rods are driven in ground at each tower if resistance is less than 15 ohms. aerial earthing wire is to be earthed.  For higher resistance two rods are driven in ground whose distance should not exceed 200ft. 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 69 . Even then resistance should not exceed 25 ohms.

If it can not be done safely, it need not be done

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Basic six steps to safety
1.
2. 3.

4.
5. 6.

Think – Be Aware Understand Procedures Follow Procedures Use Appropriate safety equipment If not sure, ask; do not assume Do not answer if you do not know

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Pre Job Briefing, SHEPP
 Special Precautions to be taken
 Hazard Associated with the job  Energy control Procedures

 Procedures and policies
 Personal Protective Equipment

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When?  At the beginning of new shift  At the beginning of new job  Any time job conditions change  Any time when new personnel are introduced in an ongoing job 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 73 .

Energized or De-energized?  As much as possible de-energize before start of work  If job requires energized work. assess the hazard and use proper tools.  Production loss should not be the sole reason for doing energized work  Only qualified and trained workers to do energized work 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 74 . equipment and PPE  If control circuit is to be tested. shut power to power circuit.

Energized work  Excessive restart time in continuous process plant  High product loss in un scheduled stoppage  Testing electrical circuit  Trouble shooting controls  Infrared scan 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 75 .

No load isolating switches should not be used for load interruption. Prashant Srivastava 76 4/29/2012 . All energy control devices feeding the area should be opened. As far as possible switches and breakers should be remotely operated. Locks and tags should be placed on energy control devices.Safe conditions for De-Energized work  Only qualified people who know about system should     switch it off.

Safe conditions for De-Energized work Locks and Tags 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 77 .

Safe conditions for De-Energized work  All previously energized parts e.  Voltage measurement to ensure all live parts are dead and at zero potential.g.  The work areas must be inspected by qualified person to ensure no parts are still energized. This step is often missed by many. 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 78 . watches. bus bars should be discharged and grounded. ornaments. metal buttons etc. rings.g. Remove all conducing material on body e.

Proximity Tester 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 79 .

Contact Voltage tester 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 80 .

Voltage measurement 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 81 .

Voltage measurement 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 82 .

Even a handle with long operating rod is better than manually operating from near the breaker. Do not forget to put on PPE. Always have two people operating the breaker. Depending upon class of hazard. Keep face and eyes away from breaker. Arc Flash suit should be put on.Racking in and out metal clad breakers  Many Arc Flash accidents happen while racking in and out     of breakers Safe way to do so is to do this by remotely operated gear. Prashant Srivastava 83 4/29/2012 . if required. Stand at an angle rather than face full square on. One to do the physical work and other to monitor from a distance and call for help if necessary.

External safety grounding should be done by using proper grounding connections with tested earth bus. 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 84 . All previously live parts should be looped and a single ground connection should be made firmly to the earth bus by suitable clamps.Racking in and out metal clad breakers  Racked out breaker’s springs or pneumatic operating energy should be discharged if not done so already.  Similarly make sure operating spring or other operating device is off before racking in the breaker. Usually breakers have mechanical and electrical interlocks to take care of this but making sure is a good practice.

Remote racking of Breakers 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 85 .

Safety grounding Earthing Clamps 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 86 .

Grounding Switchgear Grounding Metal Tower Grounding 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 87 .

 A zero potential surface should be created below the pole on which operator should stand.  Using rubber gloves and glasses with side shields and standing upon zero potential plate operate the switch.Operation of Gang Operated Switch  Gang operated switches are usually used on overhead lines. 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 88 .

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Remove locks and tags Recheck that breaker spring is de. Rack in the breaker Close doors Close switch and energize Prashant Srivastava 90 4/29/2012 . Remove temporary ground connection.energized. Ensure that no tools are left where they should not be. Ensure re-insulation and other closing work has been done properly.Re-energizing equipment  Before re-energizing inspect thoroughly to ensure that the         work which was to be done is completed satisfactorily. Inform all concerned people to move away.

 Reduce protective relay setting . if required  At least two persons should work in teams with at least one person monitoring the process. 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 91 .Energized working  Pre Job briefing . SHEPP  Inspect all energized working tools and PPE  Only qualified personnel to be near place of work  Work only with special tools and measuring instruments.

Hot sticks and Insulated Tools 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 92 .

If the drawing has become old and not legible.Too much information clutters up the drawing and many important information goes hiding SEOLD should clearly show sources of power.  It should be Accurate and should be updated from time to time  Concise. interconnections. new drawings should be made.  Legibility. 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 93 . disconnect switches.Safety Electrical One Line Diagram  An updated single Line diagram which is made for the purpose of safety.

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Locate emergency exits. It should be legible.One minute safety Audit  Notify responsible person of your presence in the area.  Listen for any abnormal sound and sniff for unusual     odor. Locate fire alarms and telephones. temp. Locate Single line Safety Diagram. and pressure gauges to ensure the readings are in acceptable range. Prashant Srivastava 95 4/29/2012 . Inspect all transformer’s liquid levels.

One minute safety Audit
 Area should be neat and tidy. Panels should not be

used as almirah for storage of material and equipment.  All safety equipment should be within easy reach.  Check to see that all protective relay flags are reset.

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Accidents don’t just happen. They can be prevented.

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By Planning
Plan after making detailed studies  Arc Flash Hazard Studies  Load flow studies
 About Voltage , Amp., Active and Reactive power. Used for

sizing equipment.

 Stability Studies  Transient and steady state stability of Power system. These studies inform about stability during slow and fast changes  Motor starting analysis  It is a computer generated model of a large motor under starting condition, how it affects power system
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failures and safety hazards  Switching Transient analysis  Certain loads create switching transients.By Planning  Harmonic Analysis  Harmonics and other power quality problems which can cause equipment malfunction . A reliability study will help evolve strategies to operate system safely during interruption. 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 99 . Switch malfunctions also creates transients. Study shows magnitude of transients and allows to develop solutions  Reliability Analysis  It is a study of frequency of interruptions an number of interruptions in a year.

touch and step voltages  Fault currents magnitude and duration  Geometry of grounding system  Soil resistivity  Probability of contact  Human body resistance and assumptions on conditions of individual 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 100 . type of cable.  Ground Mat analysis  Study of earth resistance.By Planning  Cable Amp analysis  This study recommends proper size of cable for each application depending upon capacity. route and environment.

4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 101 .  Study also shows protective Zone’s relay coordination and selectivity  Time curves and coordination  Study of collateral damage to cables and other current carrying devices during short circuits This study is one of the most important from safety point of view and should be repeated every five years in an operating plant.By Planning  Short Circuit study and Protective device Coordination  Study about short circuit and earth fault currents’ magnitude at various locations.

plans for expansion Select arc flash protected switchgear Select switches for remote operation Select only good brand products with relevant safety certification Make good layout with adequate space for ingress and egress. with extra capacity keeping       in mind safety factor. Plan for adequate number of disconnect switches for isolation for maintenance Plan for motor disconnect switch near a motor for operation during maintenance Prashant Srivastava 102 4/29/2012 . cables etc. over and above.By Design  Select Switch gear.

Use low voltage for controls. Plan proper routing for cables with proper ventilation and access. Plan for static earthing plates earthing tankers of Petroleum products loading and unloading. Purchase adequate number and type of PPE Prashant Srivastava 103 4/29/2012 . Plan for proper measuring and testing instruments Specify flame proof switchgear and motors in locations where they are needed.By Design  Specify transformer with Pressure relief valve and drain pipe        instead of explosion vent Design sufficient and strategically located safety fences to keep out un authorized entry by man and animals.

Inspect contractors tools and machines for safety. Maintain overall discipline at work site Prashant Srivastava 4/29/2012 104 . Make quality plan for each work.g.By installation  Select only Certified contractor  Insist upon contractor providing proper uniform and safety kit to      their worker as part of contract. Put safety inspectors on the job of monitoring hot work like welding. Provide training in specific jobs to contractor’s workers. Take adequate managerial steps to ensure compliance. power tools etc. hand tools. Machines e. Insist upon contractor’s workers using them. welding machine. discuss with contractor and inspect its implementation. cutting by gas with adequate arrangement for fire fighting.

Prashant Srivastava 105 4/29/2012 .By Operation         Provide training to workers Provide safety kits and PPE Provide suitable tools and measuring instruments Provide competent supervision Make detailed plan for maintenance Use of Predictive maintenance tools Provide good quality spares Make safety teams including workers and actively participate in their meeting Plan for a rapid response team to provide rescue and medical aid in case accidents still do happen.

Grounding of power systems for safety 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 106 .

Grounded systems provide sufficiently high short circuit and earth fault currents to operate protective equipment.What & why of System Grounding  It is connecting one of the supply conductors to the     earth. Prashant Srivastava 107 4/29/2012 . They are less prone to transient over voltages They are generally more protected from lightening Solidly grounded systems are less prone to resonance and to insulation failure.

4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 108 .  In single phase supply neutral is grounded  In star connected three phase system.  In three wire delta connected supply.System Grounding  In DC supply. earthing transformer is used for grounding. either + ve or –ve can be grounded. star point is grounded and used as neutral for single phase supply.

Solid grounding 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 109 .

Solid grounding  Used mostly for LT where earth fault current is low.  Also used for voltages above 33kV where line capacitive currents and inductive earth fault current neutralize each other to such an extent that effective neutral current is not very high during earth fault. 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 110 .

Neutral Grounding Resistance 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 111 .

4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 112 .  At these voltages line capacitive currents are not high enough and earth fault current is large enough.3 kV to 33 kV systems.Neutral Grounding Resistance  Used mostly in 3.  In earth fault conditions.  Is so chosen that it does not affect neutral voltage much in normal operation. it limits earth fault current at the cost of raising neutral voltage but makes the system safer.

Grounding ungrounded 3 wire supply

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For sustained growth and safe operation

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Necessity of safety management
 Legal requirement
 Employees health and safety  Money involved in accidents and down time

 Industrial Relations
 Social Obligation

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 Some of these requirements start from design of system and continue in purchase.  In case any changes are required to be done.  An alert management knows about these requirements and complies. installation and commissioning of equipment and continue in Operation and maintenance. 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 116 . then again legal requirements need to be studied and implemented.Legal Requirement  There are certain mandatory requirements which must be fulfilled.

Employee Health and safety  Every employer has responsibilities towards safety and health of his employees.  With out proper planning and implementing safe and healthy practices health and safety of employees can not be ensured. 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 117 .

Financial loss  Man hour loss  Production loss  Bad reputation  Market share loss 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 118 .

Industrial Relations  Accidents lead to bad IR  Loss of man hours and production 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 119 .

Electrical Safety Program Structure 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 120 .

 A legal advisor to inform and clarify legal obligations 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 121 .Company Electrical Safety Team CEST  Consists of a senior electrical person as chair person  And many more qualified electrical persons  Management provides representative as advisor to advise company policies  A SHE member who has ultimate responsibility to run safety program.

Responsibilities of CEST  To develop.  Degree of authority to this team should be high  CEST should have a member at management level to develop company safety policy 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 122 . evaluate and modify company safety procedures. implement.

it need not be done.  Each employee is responsible for his own safety  The commitment and cooperation of all employees is required to sustain safety program  To ensure regular safety team meeting  To conduct safety audit by a competent external agency 4/29/2012 Prashant Srivastava 123 .Company’s commitment  To safe work practices  To comply with legal requirement  In any electrical work safety is prime consideration  All employees are required to follow safety procedures  If a job can not be done safely.

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