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Expressions of inner feelings that reflect whether a person is favorably or unfavorably predisposed to some object -- a brand, a brand name, a service, a service provider, a retail store, a company, an advertisement, in essence, any marketing stimuli. Opinions A large amount of questions in marketing research are designed to measure attitudes Marketing managers want to understand consumers’ attitudes in order to influence their behavior

Three Components of Attitudes
The ABCs of attitudes:
 The Affective Component (based on feelings or

overall evaluation) Feelings of like or dislike The Behavioral Component (likely action toward object; e.g. from a consumer behavior point of view, the consumer’s intention to buy a product) Intentions to behave The Cognitive Component (based on beliefs; what you think about a marketing stimulus) –

Information possessed

To collect data, you need to have something to measure

Measurement is the process of assigning numbers or scores to characteristics or attributes of the objects or people people of interest

• For example consider the people in this class as objects and their height as the attribute • The attribute height varies between objects. we obtain a value that varies between objects. hence attributes are more collectively known as variables • Variables can be measured on four different scales .Variables • When we measure the attributes of an object.

. No assumptions are made that any color has more or less value than any other color. but it would not have any value. E. which color people select. A number could be assigned to each color. . Colors differ qualitatively not quantitatively.g.Nominal Scale Classifies data according to a category only. The number serves only to identify the color.

Nominal Scale  Assign subjects to groups or categories – Mutually exclusive – Collectively exhaustive  No order or distance relationship  No arithmetic origin  Only count numbers in categories  Only present percentages of categories  Chi-square most often used test of statistical significance .

Clerical Coded as Coded as “2” . Technical.Other Examples Sex Marital status Geographic location Ethnic Group Brand choice Social status Days of the week (months) Patrons per hour Types of restaurants Religion Job Type: Executive.

Nominal Scale Which of the following media influences your purchasing decisions the most? –1 Television –2 Radio –3 Newspapers –4 Magazines .

it is fair to say that one response is greater or less than another.Ordinal Scale classifies nominal data according to some order or rank E.g. "2" for "hotter" and "3" for "hottest" could be assigned. if people were asked to rate the hotness of 3 chili peppers. . The gap between the items is unspecified.g. "hotter" and "hottest" could be used. E. a scale of "hot". names ordered alphabetically With ordinal data. Values of "1" for "hot".

arithmetic origin Means items cannot be added In marketing research practice.Ordinal Scale Can include opinion and preference scales Median but not mean No unique. ordinal scale variables are often treated as interval scale variables .

53 9.Perry 9. Weir 7. Furyk 6. Goosen 5.57 7. Singh 4.5 your degree of satisfaction Women’s dress sizes .18 As of Oct 19.Toms 8.Love-III 5.Ordinal Scale Rank Player 1. rank on a scale of 1.96 7.46 5.19 7.37 GPA Examples Small medium large Quality Likert scales.26 9.92 5.Woods 2.68 5.. 2003 Avg Pts 16. Els 3. Harrington 10.

Please rank the news programs offered in following four networks based on your preference. _____ CTV _____ Global _____ A Channel _____ CBC .(1 for most preferred. 4 for least preferred).

. mean. i. standard deviation . Permissible statistics: count/frequencies.e. A temperature of "zero" does not mean that there is no temperature.g. Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales an interval scale does not have to have a true zero. is just an arbitrary zero point. gaps between whole numbers on the scale are equal.g. mode. e..Interval Scale assumes that the measurements are made in equal units. e.

Interval Scale How likely are you going to buy a new automobile within the next six months? (Please check the most appropriate category) Definitely will not buy Probably will not buy May or may not buy Probably will buy Definitely will buy ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ 1 2 3 4 5 .

Permits full arithmetic operation. If a train journey takes 2 hr and 35 min. the time something takes allows you to compare differences between numbers. . then this is half as long as a journey which takes 5 hr and 10 min. e.g.Ratio Scale similar to interval scales except that the ratio scale has a true zero value.

Ratio Scale • Indicates actual amount of variable – Shows magnitude of differences between points on scale – Shows proportions of differences • All statistical techniques useable • Most powerful with most meaningful answers • Allows comparisons of absolute magnitudes .

weight.What is your annual income before taxes? $ _______ 2.Examples height. How far is your workplace from home? miles _______ . age. Length time Income 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Market share 1.

4 .1 13.2 14.6 Ratio 15.1 9.2 9.Primary Scales of Measurement Nominal Numbers Assigned to Runners 4 81 9 Ordinal Rank Order of Winners Third Place Second Place First Place Interval Performance Rating on a 0 to 10 Scale Time to Finish in Seconds 8.

Comparison of Measurement Scales Label Nominal scale Ordinal scale Interval scale Ratio scale Yes Yes Yes Yes Order Distance Origin No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No No Yes .

Use of Measurement Scales • Nominal – Used to categorize objects • Ordinal – Used to define ordered relationships • Interval – Used to rank objects such that the magnitude of the difference between two objects can be determined • Ratio – Same as interval scale but has an absolute zero point .

Always use the most powerful scale possible Adding Sophistication To Scales • Concept: Desire to watch Star Wars movies – If a Star Wars movie is on television will you watch it? • Yes _____ No _____ – How likely are you to watch a Star Wars movie shown on television? • Very Likely ____ Likely ____ Indifferent ___ • Unlikely _____ Very Unlikely _____ .

• Continuous variables: have an Ordinal. or ratio variables scale of measurement.Another way to describe variables • Qualitative variables: have a nominal scale of measurement. • Quantitative variables: have an interval scale of measurement. . • Categorical variables: have a nominal or ordinal scale of measurement. interval.

(Or is it?) •How could education be measure using… –A nominal scale –An ordinal scale .Practice describing variables • Q: What kind of variable is educational attainment. and what scale is it measured in? •A: Education is measured in number of years of schooling. and is therefore a discrete quantitative variable measured on an interval scale.

A Classification of Scaling Techniques SCALING TECHNIQUES Comparative Scales Non-Comparative Scales Paired Comparison Rank Order Constant Sum Others Continuous Rating Scales Itemized Rating Scales Likert Semantic Differential Stapel .

• e.g.g. How does Pepsi compare with Coke on sweetness  NONCOMPARATIVE SCALES • Respondent scales each stimulus object independently of other objects •e. How would you rate the sweetness of Pepsi on a scale of 1 to 10 .Types of Scaling Techniques  COMPARATIVE SCALES • Involve the respondent directly comparing stimulus objects.

B. C and D. we would have respondents compare • A and B • A and C • A and D • B and C • B and D • C and D –Usually limited to N < 15 .Paired Comparison Items If we have brands A.

COMPARATIVE SCALES Paired Comparison Please indicate which of the following airlines you prefer by circling your more preferred airline in each pair: Air Canada Air Transat Zip WestJet Air Canada Zip WestJet Air Canada WestJet Air Transat Zip Air Transat .

Pepper Tab Pepsi-Cola _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ 100 points points points points points points .COMPARATIVE SCALES Constant Sum Scales Allocate a total of 100 points among the following soft-drinks depending on how favorable you feel toward each. (Please check that the allocated points add to 100.) Coca-Cola 7-Up Dr. the more points you should allocate to it. the more highly you think of each soft-drink.

Constant Sum Scale Please divide 100 points among the following characteristics so the division reflects the relative importance of each characteristic to you in the selection of a bank Hours of service Friendliness Distance from home Investment vehicles Parking facilities ________________ _______________ ________________ ________________ __________________ .

Pepper Pepsi-Cola Mountain Dew _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ –Top and bottom rank choices are ‘easy’ –Middle ranks are usually most ‘difficult’ .COMPARATIVE SCALES Rank-Order Scales Rank the following soft-drinks from 1 (best) to 5 (worst) according to your taste preference: Coca-Cola 7-Up Dr.

Comparative Scales Rank Order Scale Indicate your preferred type of music with a 1. and so on for each type of music: ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ Heavy Metal Alternative Urban Contemporary Classical Country . your second favorite with a 2.

No two brands should receive the same rank number. Begin by picking out the one brand that you like most and assign it a number 1. The criterion of preference is entirely up to you. Pepsodent 9. Then find the second most preferred. Aim 4. Mentadent 5. Brand Rank Order 1. Stripe . Macleans 6. Just try to be consistent. The least preferred brand should be assigned a a rank of 10. Continue this procedure until you have ranked all the brands of toothpaste in order of preference.Instructions Rank the various brands of toothpaste in order of preference.brand and assign it a number 2. Crest 2. Colgate 3. There is no right or wrong answer. Close Up 8. Ultra Brite 7. Plus White 10.

Ford is: less innovative about the same more innovative 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 .COMPARATIVE SCALES Compared to Chevrolet.

Non comparative scale Continuous scale The worst • How would you rate Marketing Research to other courses this term X X The Best 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 .


Itemized Rating Scales Semantic Differential Scale The Likert scale Staple scale .

Non-Comparative Scales .

Modern Store Low prices Unfriendly staff Narrow product range Sophisticated customers Old. For each statement tick ( X ) the box that best describes your feelings about K-Mart.fashioned store High prices Friendly staff Wide product range Unsophisticated customers .Non-Comparative Scales Semantic Differential Scale Here are a number of statements that could be used to describe K-Mart.

Semantic Differential Scale Snake Diagram Modern Store Low prices Friendly staff Wide product range Sophisticated customers X X X X X - Old.fashioned store High prices Unfriendly staff Narrow product range Unsophisticated customers Key : Sears X K-Mart .

Itemised Rating Scales Semantic differential Old X Fashioned 1 Cheap 1 Friendly service 1 Modern 2 2 2 3 3 X 3 4 X 4 4 5 Expensive 5 5 Unfriendly service .

Itemised Rating Scales Likert scale Strongly agree Market research is the most interesting subject known to man 1 2 disagree Neither agree nor disagree 3 4 agree Strongly agree 5 .

Itemised Rating Scales The Likert scale .

AGREEMENT •Strongly Agree •Agree •Undecided •Disagree •Strongly Disagree •Agree Strongly •Agree Moderately •Agree Slightly •Disagree Slightly •Disagree Moderately •Disagree Strongly •Agree •Disagree •Agree •Undecided •Disagree •Agree Very Strongly •Agree Strongly •Agree •Disagree •Disagree Strongly •Disagree Very Strongly •Yes •No •Completely Agree •Mostly Agree •Slightly Agree •Slightly Disagree •Mostly Disagree •Completely Disagree •Disagree Strongly •Disagree •Tend to Disagree •Tend to Agree •Agree •Agree Strongly .

FREQUENCY •Very Frequently •Frequently •Occasionally •Rarely •Very Rarely •Never •A Great Deal •Much •Somewhat •Little •Never •Always •Very Frequently •Occasionally •Rarely •Very Rarely •Never •Always •Usually •About Half the Time •Seldom •Never •Almost Always •To a Considerable Degree •Occasionally •Seldom •Often •Sometimes •Seldom •Never •Always •Very Often •Sometimes •Rarely •Never .

IMPORTANCE •Very Important •Important •Moderately Important •Of Little Importance •Unimportant •Very Important •Moderately Important •Unimportant QUALITY •Very Good •Good •Barely Acceptable •Poor •Very Poor •Extremely Poor •Below Average •Average •Above Average •Excellent •Good •Fair •Poor .

LIKELIHOOD •Like Me •Unlike Me •To a Great Extent •Somewhat •Very Little •Not at All •Almost Always True •Usually True •Often True •Occasionally True •Sometimes But Infrequently True •Usually Not True •Almost Never True •True •False •Definitely •Very Probably •Probably •Possibly •Probably Not •Very Probably Not •True of Myself •Mostly True of Myself •About Halfway True of Myself •Slightly True Of Myself •Not at All True of Myself .

Itemised Rating Scales Staple scale +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 High quality -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 Poor service -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 .

A Stapel Scale for Measuring a Store’s Image
Select a plus number for words that you think describe the store accurately. The more accurately you think the work describes the store, the larger the plus number you should choose. Select a minus number for words you think do not describe the store accurately. The less accurately you think the word describes the store, the larger the minus number you should choose, therefore, you can select any number from +3 for words that you think are very accurate all the way to -3 for words that you think are very inaccurate.
+3 +2 +1 Wide Selection -1 -2 -3

Staple Scale
The following questions concern your ratings of several suppliers that provide products for use in your store.

Poor Product Selection Costly Products Fast Service High Quality Products Innovative -5 -5 -5 -5 -5 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -3 -3 -3 -3 -3 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5

Some Basic Considerations When Selecting a Scale
Selecting a Rating, Ranking, Sorting, or Purchase Intent Scale

Number of Categories

Odd or Even Number of Scale Categories

Forced Versus Non-forced Choice

Balanced Versus Non-balanced Alternatives

use odd number Odd Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Even _____ Strongly Agree_____ _____ Agree _____ Disagree _____ _____ _____ Strongly disagree___ Strongly disagree_____ .Odd versus even if neutral responses likely.

Unbalanced Balanced Very good Good Fair Poor Very Poor ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ Unbalanced Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ .Balanced vs.

Balanced and Unbalanced Scales Balanced Scale JOVAN MUSK FOR MEN IS Extremely good Very good Good Bad Very bad Extremely bad Unbalanced Scale JOVAN MUSK FOR MEN IS Extremely good Very good Somewhat Good Good Bad Very bad .

Forced vs. Unforced Forced Extremely Reliable Very Reliable Somewhat Reliable Somewhat Unreliable Very Unreliable Extremely Unreliable ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Unforced Extremely Reliable Very Reliable Somewhat Reliable Somewhat Unreliable Very Unreliable Extremely Unreliable Don’t know ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ .

End Anchored Labeled Excellent Very Good Fair Poor Very Poor _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ Poor End Anchored Excellent _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ .Labeled vs.

Intervals May Not Reflect the Semantic Meaning of the Adjectives Excellent _____ Labeled Excellent Very Good Fair Poor Very Poor _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ Fair Poor Intervals Are Not Equal Very Good_____ _____ _____ Intervals Are Not Equal Very Poor _____ .

Number of Scale Points 5 Point Excellent _____ _____ _____ _____ Poor _____ Poor 10 Point Excellent _____ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ .

Choosing the Appropriate Scale Attitude component Knowledge Awareness Attribute beliefs Attribute importance Affect or Liking Overall preferences Specific attributes Action intentions A B A B A A B B A B B B B A A A A B B B A B B A Itemized category Rank Constant order sum Likert Semantic differential A = Very appropriate. B = Sometimes appropriate .

Sensitivity • The ability to discriminate meaningful differences between attitudes.Characteristics of Good Measurement Scales 1. Accuracy • synonymous with repetitive consistency 2. Generalizability • How easy is scale to administer and interpret . Validity • The degree to which a measure faithfully represents the underlying concept. Reliability • The degree to which a measure accurately captures an individual’s true outcome without error. Fidelity 3. The more categories the more sensitive (nut less reliable) 4.

it may or may not be valid  Reliability can be more easily determined than  validity . then it is reliable  If it is not reliable. it can not be valid  If it is reliable.Validity and Reliability  If a measure is valid.

Reliability and Validity Neither Reliable Nor Valid Reliable But Not Valid Reliable And Valid .

. it measures consumers’ interest in creative writing rather than preference for kinds of stationery. high reliability • Scale is perfectly accurate. but is capturing the wrong thing. for example.Example of low validity.

data entry errors lead to random errors in data • Note that reliability sets an upper limit on validity -.a measure with a lot of errors is limited in how well it can capture a concept . but poorly worded items. sloppy administration. low reliability • Scale genuinely measures consumers’ interest in kinds of stationery.Example of modest validity.

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