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Nanotechnology has a huge scope in the coming generations: FUNDAMENTALLY NEW PROPERTIES Once in Nanophase, copper is five times stronger than the ordinary metals. Nanophase ceramics are highly resisting to breaking. EXCITING NEW MATERIALS Carbon nanotubes are fantastic conductors STRANGE SIZE DEPENDENT BEHAVIOUR ! Eg. Nanoparticles of Gold are pink in color



An engineered DNA strand pRNA tiny motor

Semiconducting metal junction formed by two carbon nanotubes


is the study of the control of matter on an atomic and molecular scale It is the creation of functional materials, devices and systems, through the understanding and control of matter at dimensions in the nanometer scale length (1-100 nm), in order to create new properties and to stimulate particular desired functionalities.


12,756 Km

22 cm

0.7 nm

1.27 107 m

0.22 m

0.7 10-9 m

10 millions times smaller

1 billion times smaller

Fullerenes C60


Realization of miniaturized devices and systems while providing MORE FUNCTIONALITY Attainment of HIGH SURFACE AREA TO VOLUME RATIO

Manifestation of novel phenomena and properties, including changes in: - Physical Properties (e.g. melting point) - Chemical Properties (e.g. reactivity) - Electrical Properties (e.g. conductivity) - Mechanical Properties (e.g. strength) - Optical Properties (e.g. light emission)

~ 2000 Years Ago Sulfide nano crystals used by Greeks and Romans to dye hair ~ 1000 Years Ago (Middle Ages) Gold nano particles of different sizes used to produce different colors in stained glass windows 1959 Theres plenty of room at the bottom by R. FEYNMAN-> 1974 Nanotechnology - Taniguchi uses the term nanotechnology for the first time 1981 IBM develops Scanning Tunneling Microscope 1985 Buckyball - Scientists at Rice University and University of Sussex discover C60 1986 Engines of Creation - First book on nanotechnology by K. Eric Drexler. Atomic Force Microscope invented by Binnig, Quate and Gerbe 1989 IBM logo made with individual atoms 1991 Carbon nanotube discovered by S. Iijima 1999 Nanomedicine 1st nanomedicine book by R. Freitas 2000 National Nanotechnology Initiative launched

Software for Designing,Visualizing and Simulating Nanoscale Components Nanoengineering is a truly multidisciplinary activity, requiring tools from chemistry, physics, high-end visualization, mechanical engineering, and other areas Is unique in that it makes the nanodevice its central design focus and tackles the nanoengineering problem from all angles.

NanoXplorer IDE

Allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure Molecular scale tubes of graphitic carbon with outstanding properties. Length-to-diameter ratio greater than 1,000,000.


The wide range of electronic, thermal, and structural properties of carbon nanotubes vary according to the different diameter, length, and direction of twist of the nanotube. For example, carbon nanotubes Are highly conductive both to electricity and heat - exhibit an electrical conductivity as high as copper - thermal conductivity as great as diamond. Have excellent mechanical properties - they are 100 times stronger than steel, while only one sixth of the weight.
They offer amazing possibilities for creating future nanoelectronic devices, circuits and computers and in creating nanocomposites for a variety of application scenarios ranging from military to aerospace to medicine.


nanometer-sized field emission semiconductor displays and devices, probes and radiation sources interconnects hydrogen storage conductive and highmedia strength specialist Research is expected composites to lead to new devices for energy materials, lubricants, storage and energy coatings, catalysts, conversion electro-optical devices, and medical Sensors applications.


may hold the key to making space-flight more practical. make lightweight spacecraft and a cable for the space elevator possible by significantly reducing the amount of rocket fuel required, could lower the cost of reaching orbit and traveling in space.

When it's perfected, this method should greatly reduce the damage treatment such as chemotherapy does to a patient's healthy cells. Applications such as: Nanotubes used in broken bones to provide a structure for new bone material to grow. Nanoparticles that can attach to cells infected with various diseases and allow a doctor to identify, in a blood sample, the particular disease. Nanoshells that concentrate the heat from infrared light to destroy cancer cells with minimal damage to surrounding healthy cells. For a good visual explanation of nanoshells,see next slide.


Companies are currently developing batteries using nanomaterials These will be as good as new even after sitting on the shelf for decades!! Also, Can be recharged significantly faster than conventional batteries. -Can make the production of fuels from low grade raw materials economical, -increasing the mileage of engines, and -making the production of fuels from normal raw materials more efficient


Fuel Cells AND Solar Cells

Nanotechnology is being used to reduce the cost of catalysts used in fuel cells to produce hydrogen ions from fuel such as methanol and to improve the efficiency of membranes used in fuel cells to separate hydrogen ions from other gases such as oxygen. Companies have developed nanotech solar cells that can be manufactured at significantly lower cost than conventional solar cells.

Being used to develop solutions to different problems in water quality. One challenge is the removal of industrial wastes, such as a cleaning solvent called TCE, from groundwater. Nanoparticles can be used to convert the contaminating chemical through a chemical reaction to make it harmless. Studies have shown that this method can be used successfully to reach contaminates dispersed in underground ponds and at much lower cost than methods which require pumping the water out of the ground for treatment

Carbon nanotubes sound like a product designers dream. But like many technologies that offer benefits, there are risks too. We have all learned how to handle electricity, gas, steam and even cars and aeroplanes in a safe manner because we need their benefits. The same goes for carbon nanotubes. Mostly they will be perfectly safe, embedded within other materials, such as polymers. There is some possibility that free carbon nanotubes of a specific length scales may pose health threats if inhaled, particularly at the manufacturing stage. Industry is very conscious of this possibility, and is endeavouring to ensure that any potential hazard is minimised, so that we can all reap the benefits and promise of this new wonder material.

NanoTechnology has the potential to become a more significant revolutionary force for business than the industrial revolution or the information technology revolution.In fact, many believe that the combined impact of both the industrial and information revolution may approach the magnitude of change that could result from the commercialization of NanoTechnology. Currently, NanoTechnology is moving from the basic research stage of its evolution into the applied research stage of technology maturity.Today there are several NanoTechnology companies already being traded on the public marketplace. As this technology evolves and matures, you can expect to see many more companies enter this space.