Business Communication

BEN HUANG

Definition of Communication

Communication is the process through which participants create and share information with one another as they move toward reaching mutual understanding (Rogers, 1999)

Main Elements of Communication

A code is a classification such as a language used by individuals to categorize their experience and to communicate it to others Encoding is the process by which an idea is converted into a message by a source. Decoding is the process by which the physical message is converted into an idea by the receiver. The receiver usually does not decode a message into exactly the same meaning that the

Elements in the Communication Process

Noise can interfere with the transmission of a message Noise is anything that hinders the communication process among participants. When the source and the receiver do not share a common value regarding the message content, effective communication is unlikely

Elements in the Communication Process

A source is the individual who originates a message by encoding an idea into a message. A receiver is the individual who decodes a communication message by converting it into an idea. A channel is the means by which a message is transmitted from its origin to its destination. Feedback is a message about the effects of a previous message that is sent back to the source (Rogers, 1999).

Perceptions versus Objective Reality
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Many scholars established that an individual’s perceptions are more important than objective reality in determining the individual behavior. Perception is the individual’s “definition of the situation” – how a person subjectively interprets communication messages into meaning. Communication influences perceptions; they, in turn, influence an individual’s behavior. Perceptions of Body Weight by African-American and White Adolescent Girls

Perception counts

Our interpretation of word and meanings can impede communication. Words are merely symbols and have no meanings. We attach meanings to the words. Problems in communication arise when we attach different meaning to the same word.

Communication Breakdown

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The way message is being encoded. Too many languages or tones inappropriate. Wrong medium chosen Lack of feedback or wrongly interpreted by sender. Receiver unable to comprehend sender’s language. False inferences (meanings derived from assumptions).

Communication Breakdown

Stereotyping. Generalizations about some group of people that oversimplify reality. Such generalizations prevent accurate perception of the qualities of unalike others (Rogers, 1999). We learn stereotypes as one part of our culture. Standardized mental pictures held in common by members of a group make it easier to decide what behavior is appropriate and what behavior to expect. Such oversimplified approach

Communication Breakdown

Halo Effect. We see things as dichotomies – good and bad, white and black and so forth. Oversimplification. Dogmatism – A person’s opinion, attitudes and beliefs establishes his position about a certain issue. When a person becomes too dogmatic, he/she refuses to accept any additional information, which conflicts with the individual’s position

Communication Breakdown

Prejudice. An unfounded attitude toward an outgroup based on a comparison with one’s ingroup. E.g. whites still cling on to stereotypes that African Americans are perceived as poor, violent, unintelligent, and welfaredependent. Survey found that 3 percent of White European Americans perceived African Americans as lazy, and 50 percent thought they were aggressive. Discrimination – treating individuals unequally on the basis of their race, gender, or other characteristics.

Communication Breakdown

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Language. Choice of words. Our background knowledge and experience affect our understanding Non-verbal cues Listening Relationships with the person – breakdown when it is not good Emotional response – when highly emotional – problems may arise from anger, fear, resentment, insecurity, etc. Grapevine – a vehicle for distortions of truth, gossips and rumor

Types of Communication
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Written communication. Examples? Oral Communication. Visual Communication Nonverbal Communication

Types of Communication

Written communication. Memo, staff newsletter, report, minutes, notice/circular, electronic mail Oral Communication. Face-to-face discussion, telephone, meeting/conference Visual Communication. Charts, visual aids, television, movie, slide shows. Nonverbal Communication

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Think clearly. Think before you speak or write. Listen intelligently. Communication twoway process. Select appropriate media. The method to communicate your message. Time your communication appropriately. When communication should take and how long. Use appropriate language. Obtain feedback.

Principles of Effective Communication

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