Models of Communication: communicative competence (monocultural) & the training of communicative skills

Contents
1. Models of Communication
– What is communication? – What is communicative competence?

2. The Training of Communicative Skills
(based on Schulz von Thun‟s model)

3. Moving towards Intercultural Communication
(discussion)

1. Models of Communication
– What is communication? – What is communicative competence?

A Definition
“communication [Lat. communicatio „the action of imparting„]

In its broadest sense, this term refers to every kind of mutual transmission of information using signs or symbols between living beings (humans, animals), between people and data-processing machines. [...]”
(Bussmann 1996:83)

[.]” (Bussmann 1996:83) . linguistic sense. communication is the understanding which occurs between humans through linguistic and non-linguistic means like gestures. mimicry and voice ( non-verbal communication)... The basic components of communication are shown in communication models.A Definition (continued) “In its narrower.

Models of Communication • • • • • • • Aristotle„s Rhetoric De Saussure„s Model of the Speech Circuit Shannon„s and Weaver„s Model Gerbner„s General Model Jacobson's Models Jackson‟s Model Schulz von Thun‟s Model .

cultsock.html) .ndirect.Aristotle‟s Rhetoric Three elements of communication: • the speaker • the speech • the audience (http://www.uk/MUHome/cshtml/introductory/aristotle.co.

html) .de/fb8/misc/lfb/html7text/6-1frame.De Saussure‟s Model of the Speech Circuit (1916) Audition Phonation c i c: concept i: image acoustique (acoustic image) c i Phonation Audition (http://www.uni-kassel.

html) .The Shannon-Weaver Model (1949) received signal channel receiver message signal message destination information source transmitter noise source (http://www.co.ndirect.uk/MUHome/cshtml/introductory/sw.cultsock.

ac. http://www.The Shannon-Weaver Model – Criticism • • • • • • • • the „conduit metaphor‟ (Reddy 1979) linearity content and meaning instrumentalism context relationships and purposes time medium (cf.aber.uk/media/Functions/mcs.html) .

html) .cultsock.co.The Shannon-Weaver Model – Extension information source transmitter channel receiver destination noise source feedback (cf. http://www.ndirect.uk/MUHome/cshtml/introductory/sw.

html) .uni-kassel.The Shannon-Weaver Model – Extension by Moles (1963) information source transmitter channel receiver destination noise source code 1 code 2 (http://www.de/fb8/misc/lfb/html7text/6-2frame.

Wait here till it stops raining! referential conative context addressee (cf.Jakobson‟s Model of Communicative Functions (1960) Type emotive Oriented towards addresser Function expressing feelings or attitudes imparting information influencing behaviour Example It‟s bloody pissing down again! It‟s raining.ac. http://www.uk/media/Functions/mcs.html) .aber.

It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven.Jakobson‟s Model of Communicative Functions (1960) Type Oriented Function towards phatic contact establishing or maintaining social relationships metalingual code referring to the nature of the interaction poetic message foregrounding textual features Example Nasty weather again.aber.uk/media/Functions/mcs.ac. isn‟t it? This is the weather forecast. (http://www.html) .

and Jackson (1967): Pragmatics of Human Communication • One cannot not communicate.Watzlawick. (Watzlawick and others 1967:51) • Every communication has a content and a relationship aspect such that the latter classifies the former and is therefore a metacommunication.(Watzlawick and others 1967:54) . Beavin.

Watzlawick. Birkenbihl 1987:256) . and Jackson (1967) – Content and Relationship Levels Is that a real diamond (cf. Beavin.

Beavin.Watzlawick. Birkenbihl 1987:25/) . and Jackson (1967) – Content and Relationship Levels Hi CONTENT (cf.

Watzlawick. Beavin. Birkenbihl 1987:258) . CONTENT RELATIONSHIP (cf. and Jackson (1967) – Content and Relationship Levels It‟s nice to see Mary...

and Jackson (1967) – Content and Relationship Levels analytical thinking. Birkenbihl 1987:258) .Watzlawick. words CONTENT RELATIONSHIP older parts of the brain: emotions (cf. Beavin.

Beavin. nonverbal.Watzlawick. context (cf. Birkenbihl 1987:259) . and Jackson (1967) – Content and Relationship Levels Information Information about this information verbal.

Von Thun's Model (1977) – Four Aspects of a Message .... Content Message Appeal Receiver Relationship (cf..... Schulz von Thun 1994:30) Sender Selfdisclosure //////////////////////////////// ...

..Von Thun's Model (1977) – Four Aspects of a Message The traffic light is green. Schulz von Thun 1994:31) . THE TRAFFIC LIGHT IS GREEN I‟m in a hurry.. ////////////////////////// ..... Put your foot down! You need my help! (cf.

..... Schulz von Thun 1994:34) ////////////////////////// I am sad. .. Please comfort me! You hurt me! (cf.Von Thun's Model (1977) – Three Aspects of a Non-verbal Message ..

..Von Thun's Model (1977) – Three Aspects of a Non-verbal Message . saying nothing Please go on talking.. ////////////////////////// . Schulz von Thun 1994:35) I am listening. (cf.. Your ideas are interesting....

how does he want me to feel? (cf.von Thun's Model (1977) – Receiving with Four Ears What kind of person is he? What are the facts? How does he talk to me? Who does he think I am? What does he want me to think or do. Schulz von Thun 1994:45) .

you can go and have your dinner elsewhere! (cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:62) . if you don„t like my cooking.Von Thun's Model (1977) What are those green things in the sauce? Well.

.. /////////////////// You„ll know it.. message the sauce next time! . . /////////////////// Tell me what it is! There is something green. Don„t put green I don‟t received things into like it... I don‟t know sent what it message is...... Schulz von Thun 1994:63) .Von Thun's Model (1977) – Four Aspects of a Message There is something green. You are a bad cook! (cf.

..... Feedback Received Message /////////////////////// /////////////////// (cf..Von Thun's Model (1977) ...... /////////////////////// Sent Receiver Sender Message . Schulz von Thun 1994:81) .

” (Hymes 1972:270. forms which appropriately reflect the social norms governing behavior in specific encounters.) 1993:76) . in: Beneke (ed.Communicative Competence “Communicative Competence describes the speaker‟s ability to select from the totality of grammatical expressions available to him.

communicative competence includes the following: (a) LINGUISTIC KNOWLEDGE: verbal and nonverbal codes. in: Bright 1992:273) (b) (c) .Communicative Competence “From a sociolinguistic perspective. values and beliefs. and the range of possible variants INTERACTION SKILLS: sociolinguistic rules for appropriate use. and cognitive maps or schemata for the content domains” (Saville-Troike 1992. discourse organization and processes. and strategies for achieving goals CULTURAL KNOWLEDGE: social structure.

2. The Training of Communicative Skills (based on Schulz von Thun‟s model) .

...... My life is a total disaster. Everything„s just fine! .Congruent versus Incongruent Messages .... Schulz von Thun 1994:36) ////////////////////////// ////////////////////////// ... (cf..

Receiving with One of Four Ears Selfdisclosure Facts Relationship Appeal (cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:45) .

Three Stages of Receiving a Message perceiving interpreting feeling (cf. Schulz von Thun 1994:74) .

words CONTENT RELATIONSHIP older parts of the brain: emotions (cf.Metacommunication analytical thinking. Birkenbihl 1987:258) .

... Schulz von Thun 1994:201) . Content //////////////////////////////// 2) I-messages (Self-disclosure) (Leave the content level!) 3) Wishes (Appeal) 1) Explicit Metacommunication (Relationship) (cf.Metacommunication .......

3. Moving towards Intercultural Communication Why is intercultural communication much more difficult than monocultural communication? (discussion) .

Landsberg am Lech : mgv-Verlag Bright. Aufl. Hadumod (1996): Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics.) (1993): Communication in Aviation : A collection of papers edited on behalf of IACTFLAP. Vera F.) (1993). (1987): Kommunikationstraining : Zwischenmenschliche Beziehungen erfolgreich gestalten. William (ed. Dümmlerbuch 6312) Birkenbihl. In: Beneke. Jürgen (1993): “English as the medium of intercultural communication: Some teaching suggestions“. in chief) (1992): International Encyclopedia of Linguistics : Volume 2 : Expl . Bonn : Dümmler (Sprachen und Sprachenlernen: 312. London : Routledge . Jürgen (ed.References Beneke. New York : Oxford University Press Bussmann. 8. 69-101 Beneke. pp. Jürgen (ed.Moot.

html> Corner. London : Arnold Gerbner. Daniel (1995): The Transmission Model of Communication. Jeremy (eds. last accessed: 5 November 2001) <http://www.) (1989): Communication Studies : an introductory reader.html> .uk/media/Functions/mcs. In : Corner. Communication. 3rd ed.References Chandler. (last modified: 9 May 2000.uni-kassel. (this version: May 1999. Hawthorn.aber. George (1956): A generalized graphic model of communication.de/fb8/misc/lfb/html/text/6. John.) (1989).ac. John. last accessed: 23 October 2001) <http://www. pp. Guido (1999): The Interactive MultiMedia Linguistics for Beginners : 6. Hawthorn. introduced: 20 July 2000. Jeremy (eds. 17-18 Ipsen.

Beavin. Pathologies.uk/MUHome/cshtml/index. Jackson. Reinbek bei Hamburg : Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag (rororo . Muriel (1992): “Communicative Competence“. Friedemann (1994): Miteinander reden 1 : Störungen und Klärungen : Allgemeine Psychologie der Kommunikation.co. 273 Underwood.ndirect..Communication studies. Mick (1997-2001): CCMS . (last accessed: 23 October 2001) <http://www. p. (1967): Pragmatics of Human Communication : A Study of Interactional Patterns. Don D. W.References Schulz von Thun. cultural studies. Janet H. New York : W. Norton & Company .cultsock. media studies infobase.html> Watzlawick.) (1992). In : Bright. William (ed. 7489) Saville-Troike. Paul. and Paradoxes.

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