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HUMANS AND OTHER ANIMALS THE UNIVERSITY OF RICHMOND

MARCH 22, 2002


Alice Haynes Room of the Tyler Haynes Commons 9:00 William E. Cooper: Welcoming Remarks James Rachels: An Overview of the Conference

Session One: What Are Animals Like? 9:30 Marc D. Hauser: How Our Understanding of Animal Thought Might Constrain Our Thoughts about Animal Welfare Colin Allen: Animal Pain: How Similar Does It Need to Be? Panel Discussion Marc Hauser, Colin Allen, Craig Kinsley 12:00 Lunch, The Heilman Dining Center

Session Two: Ethics and Animals


1:00 Nancy E. Schauber: Aristotle, Animals and Responsibility Cora Diamond: Injustice and Animals Panel Discussion: Nancy Schauber, Cora Diamond, Peter Vallentyne

Session Three: Animals and the Law The 10th Annual Austin Owen Lecture of The University of Richmond School of Law 3:45 Gary L. Francione: Sentience and Personhood Panel Discussion: Gary Francione, Jonathan Stubbs, Jane Smith

Session Four: Humans and Other Animals The Robins Pavilion of the Jepson Alumni Center 6:00 Reception, wine and hors doeuvres 6:30 Dinner 7:30 Gilbert Harman: Mind and Meat

Euthanasia
(not: youth in Asia)

Fact: Family members perform euthanasia. Only 3 physicians have ever been brought to trial for euthanasia in the U.S.

Dr. Herman Sander


New Hampshire, 1950 gave cancer patient 4 injections of air into heart aquitted

Dr. Vincent Montemareno


New York, 1974 gave cancer patient injection of potassium chloride aquitted

Dr. Peter Rozier


Florida, 1988 the strange case of his wifes suicide aquitted

Holland
legalized euthanasia starting in the early 1970s

The Dutch Guidelines


1. Must be performed by a doctor
2. Must be requested by patient while competent

3. Request must be free of doubt, well-documented, and repeated


4. A second, independent physician must be consulted. 5. Determination that no one pressured patient 6. Unbearable pain or condition that is otherwise intolerable 7. No available means to improve patients condition

How often is euthanasia performed under these guidelines?


The average physician will have 2 requests every 3 years, 1 of which will be deemed valid.

What do people in Holland think about this? 76% of Dutch people approve

American Medical Association (1973)


The intentional termination of the life of one human being by anothermercy killingis contrary to that for which the medical profession stands and is contrary to the policy of the American Medical Association. The cessation of the employment of extraordinary means to prolong the life of the body when there is irrefutable evidence that biological death is imminent is the decision of the patient and/or his immediate family.

Two trends in the United States


1. Defining the conditions under which patients may be allowed to die

Karen Quinlan (1975)


Clarence Herbert (1981) and Clare Conroy (1982)

Nancy Cruzan (1990)

Two trends in the United States


2. Physician-Assisted Suicide
Jack Kevorkian

Two trends in the United States


2. Physician-Assisted Suicide
Timothy Quill

What to do?
DNR Orders

Increased dosages of pain-killers such as morphine


Advance Directives
1991 Patient Self-Determination Act requires health-care providers to offer written information about living wills About 15% of patients sign a living will

Doctors attitudes toward euthanasia


20% of physicians who care for the seriously ill and terminally ill say they have been asked for assistance in speeding the dying process. Of those, 3% have written prescriptions to assist suicide

and 5% have given lethal injections.

What if it was legal?


Question: How many do you think would assist suicide?

How many do you think would be willing to give lethal injections?

36% say they would assist suicide.


24% say they would give lethal
injections.
(Source: New York Times 4/23/98)

Looking to the future . . .


Two-thirds of U.S. medical students support physician-assisted suicide.

The Oregon Experience


Oregon legalized physician-assisted suicide in 1997 . . .

In Oregon . . .
Since 1997 the rule in Oregon has been:
2 doctors must agree that patient has less than 6 months to live and is mentally competent to make the decision.

one in six such requests are being granted 20% of requests are from people who are clinically depressed

In Oregon . . .
November 6, 2001:

Attorney General Ashcroft authorizes federal legal action against any doctor who prescribes lethal drugs for terminally ill patients.

Given everything that the country is going through right now, with the country trying to respond to anthrax, why John Ashcroft picked this moment to inject this divisive issue into the public debate is just beyond me.
John Kitzhaber, Governor of Oregon