OVERVIEW OF DATABASE SYSTEM

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Topics
What is a Database System? What is a Database? Why Database? Data Independence Relational Systems, and Others

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Introduction to Database
Data stored in file systems – problems with : redundancy : maintenance : security : efficient access to the data Database Management Systems
Software tools that enable the management (definition, creation, maintenance and use) of large amounts of interrelated data stored in a computer accessible media.
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Capabilities of Database Management System
 Manage persistent data  Access large amounts of data efficiently  Support for at least one data model  Support for certain high-level language that allow the user to define the structure of the data, access data, and manipulate data  Transaction management – the capability to provide correct, concurrent access to the database by many users at once  Access control – the ability to limit access to data by unauthorized users, and the ability to check the validity of data  Resiliency – the ability to recover from system failures without losing data
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Design Phases
Difficulties in designing the DB’s effectively brought design methodologies based on data models  Database development process
Conceptual Design Produces the initial model of the real world in a conceptual model Logical Design Conceptual Data Modeling Logical Database Design Physical Database Design
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Business Information Requireme

Consists of transforming the conceptual schema into the data model supported by the DBMS Physical Design Aims at improving the performance of the final system

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Conceptual Design
The process of constructing a model of the information used in an enterprise Is a conceptual representation of the data structures Is independent of all physical considerations Should be simple enough to communicate with the end user Should be detailed enough to create the physical structure
Conceptual model
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Business information requirements
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Conceptual Design (Entity-Relationship Model) 7

Entity Relationship Model
The Entity-Relationship model (ER) is the most common conceptual model for database design nowadays No attention to efficiency or physical database design Describes data as entities, attributes, and relationships It is assumed that the Entity-Relationship diagram will be turned into one of the other available models during the logical design

Entity-relationship model Hierarchical model Network model Relational model
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Entity
A thing of significance about which the business needs to store information trivial example: employee, department CERN controls example: controls_entity, location, entity_parameter, system, quantity_code, data_type Entity instance – an individual occurrence of a given entity trivial example: a single employee CERN controls example: a given system (e.g. SPS Vacuum) Note: Be careful when establishing the ‘boundaries’ for the entity, e.g. entity employee – all employees in the company or all employees in a given department – depends on the requirements

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Attributes
Attributes are properties which describe the entity attributes of system - id, description, comments Attributes associate with each instance of an entity a value from a domain of values for that attribute set of integers, real numbers, character strings

• Attributes can be
: optional : mandatory

SYSTEM # id * description o comments

• A key - an attribute or a set of
attributes, whose values uniquely identify each instance of a given entity
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Relationships
Associations between entities examples: employees are assigned to departments entity_parameters are generated by systems Degree - number of entities associated with a relationship (most common case - binary) Cardinality - indicates the maximum possible number of entity occurrences Existence - indicates the minimum number of entity occurrences set of integers, real numbers, character strings : mandatory : optional

SYSTEM # id * description

produces is generated by

ENTITY_PARAMETER # id * description o expert_name ……
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Database System
Computerized record-keeping system Supports operations
Add or delete files to the database Insert, retrieve, remove, or change data in database

Components
Data, hardware, software, users

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Database System - Data
May support single or many users Many users in organizations Data is integrated Data is shared Different users will require different views

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Database System - Hardware
Data is stored on Disk Direct access to subset portions Rapid I/O Data operated on in main memory

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Database System - Software
Database manager Database server Database management system (DBMS) DBMS provided by specific vendor

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Database System - Software DBMS is not ( but may come with)
Application Development Tools Application Software TP Monitor Report Writer System utilities

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Database System - Users
Application programmers End users Database Administrators

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What is a Database?
Collection of persistent data Collection of true propositions Made up of entities, relationships, properties Implements a data model

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What is a Database? – Entities and Relationships
Entity is a person, place, event or thing, about which we wish to store information Relationship is a connection between entities, about which we wish to store information A relationship can be considered a special case of entity

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What is a Database? Properties
Entities have properties Properties are the characteristics of an entity Properties can be simple or complex

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Data and Data Models
Database is a collection of true propositions Data model is an abstract, self-contained, logical representation Implementation of the data model on a specific platform Data model as template vs. instantiation for a specific enterprise

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Why Database?
Shared data Reduced redundancy Reduced inconsistent data Transaction support Support for data integrity Security enforcement Support for standards Conflicting requirements can be met
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Data Independence
Database separates logical and physical representation of data Allows changes to application programs without changing the structure of the underlying data and vice versa

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Materialized Data
Stored fields, collected as… Stored records, collected as… Stored files Old systems, e.g., COBOL applications, directly connect to data formats Newer database systems offer greater data independence, but could do better

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Relational Systems
Most important innovation in database history Based on logic and mathematics Data is perceived as tables, only Operators derive new tables from existing A table is a “relation,” mathematically Not pointer based (to the user)

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The Relational Model – Informally
Structural
oData is perceived by users as tables

Integrity
oData subject to specific integrity requirements

Manipulation
oOperators derive tables from other tables
•Restrict •Project •Join
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The Relational Model – Informally
Structural
Data is perceived by users as tables

Integrity
Data subject to specific integrity requirements

Manipulation
Operators derive tables from other tables
Restrict Project Join
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Type of Databse
Oracle MS SQL(Microsoft) MY SQL ACCESS (Microsoft) SYBASE DB2(IBM) XML

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Oracle Database Support
Failsafe over RAC Standalone

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