Training for the Orange Campus Community Collaborative November 20, 2006 Sponsored by: the Student Coalition for Action in Literacy Education
What is Cultural Awareness?
• Cultural Awareness is a greater understanding, sensitivity, and appreciation of the history, values, experiences, behaviors, interactions, affective understanding and lifestyles.
It recognizes and accepts differences in: Race, Ethnicity, Gender, Sexual Orientation, Religious Affiliation, Socioeconomic, Status Mental/Physical Abilities.
• Most of the times the differences are not very apparent or tangible. Certain aspects of a culture may be learned consciously (e.g. methods of greeting people), some other differences are learned subconsciously (e.g. methods of problem solving).
Perspectives on Culture and Competency
• “One ought not to hoard culture. It should be adapted and infused into society as a leaven. Liberality of culture does not mean illiberality of its benefits.”
• Wallace Stevens, 6/20/1899
• “If we cannot end our differences now, at least we can make the world safe for diversity.”
• John F. Kennedy, 6/10/1963
• “In the transmission of human culture, people always attempt to replicate, to pass on to the next generation, the skills and values of the parents, but the attempt always fails because cultural transmission is geared to learning not DNA.”
• George Bateson, Mind and Matter
Benefits of Cultural Awareness and Competency:
• “Healing, harmony, and unity between groups occur as we interact more with, become more aware about, and become better educated about one another. It's a cause for celebration when we are willing to take risks regarding our multicultural growth.” Gain Greater Self-Awareness Gain Greater Awareness of Others Develop New Friendships Develop Better Interpersonal Skills Become Better Able to Challenge Stereotypes and Prejudices Promote More Healing and Harmony Between Groups Become Better Equipped to Live in a Multicultural World
From the University of Notre Dame, University Counseling Services. <http://www.nd.edu>
Cultural Awareness and the ESOL Classroom
• LANGUAGE LEARNING: “replacing” one language with a new language, insofar as it is rarely possible to speak two languages fluently at the exact same time.
Native Language New Language
• CULTURE LEARNING: a selective process, where the learner is free to mix and match elements of new and native cultures. The learner controls the level of blending that occurs. New Culture
Native Culture Learner’s Selected Culture
As a result of the selective nature of culture learning, it is important that ESOL tutors understand the importance of cultural competency, respecting learner’s beliefs and customs, but also knowing which elements of American culture need to be taught in order to help learners succeed. Areas where awareness is most necessary and can most affect learning:
•Punctuality and Time Management • Feelings of Pride and Shame •Expectations of an Educational System •Role of the Family •Expectations of and Roles Based on Gender
Developing a Foundation for Cultural Awareness – Hofstede’s Dimensions
• Geert Hofstede, Dutch expert on the interactions between national cultures, suggests that we can being to develop our cultural awareness, and learn to work more effectively with people of other nationalities, if we are aware of the 5 INTERCULTURAL DIMENSIONS.
• • • • •
Power Distance Individualism vs. Collectivism Uncertainty Avoidance Masculinity vs. Femininity Long term vs. short term orientation
Hofstede’s theories are explained in his written works, including Culture’s Consequences (2nd rev ed., 2001) and Cultures and Organizations, Software of the Mind (w/ Gert Han Hofstede, 2nd rev ed., 2005) Hofstede is currently the Extramural Fellow at the University of Tillburg’s Center for Economic Research and was the founder and first director of the Institute for Research on Cultural Cooperation (IRIC), the Netherlands.
- Measures how much a culture does or does not value hierarchical relationships and respect for authority. - Perspective frequently considers the degree to which less powerful members of society expect differences in levels of power. - In countries with high power distance scores:
Those in authority openly demonstrate their rank. Subordinates are not given important work and are expected to take explicit direction. Subordinates take the blame for failures. Class divisions are expected. Political violence and/ or totalitarian government is frequent. Examples include: Russia, India, China, most Latin American and Arab nations.
-In countries with a low power distance score:
-Superiors treat subordinates with respect and do not pull rank. -Subordinates are entrusted with important assignments. -Blame is shared with or fully taken by a superior. -Managers and subordinates can socialize. -Liberal democracy is present/ is developed. -Societies lean toward egalitarianism. -Examples include: Japan, Australia, Canada, Scandinavian and Germanic speaking countries.
-Where high power distance perpetuates inequalities such as caste systems, lower power distance does not emphasize differences in status, power or wealth, allowing upward social mobility and equality as a collective aim of society.
Individualism vs. Collectivism
• Measures the degree to which a society reinforces individual or collective achievements and interpersonal relationships. • The rights of the individual versus those of the group.
-Personal Identity is “I” -Personal Goals and Achievements strived for. -Individual goals are pursued at the expense of others. -“Individualism” is encouraged through dress, personality, music, etc. -Laws protect individual rights, including free speech, protection of choices. -Individual relationships are formed with large numbers of people, but these relationships are weak.
-”We” is more important than “I.” -Conformity is expected and viewed positively. -Individual goals and aspirations are subsumed by the good of the group. -The rights of the group (family, work unit, etc.) are more important. -Rules provide for stability, order, obedience, and rewards for conformity.
• Measures the level of acceptance for uncertainty and ambiguity – coping with anxiety by minimizing risks. • Inherently measures a country or culture’s preference for strict laws and regulations. • Can be affected by a belief system– high scores to predominately Islamic or Catholic countries; low scores to predominately Protestant, Buddhist or Hindu countries. • Countries with high uncertainty avoidance scores:
• • • •
Can have a longer history than low scoring countries. Have a homogenous population and are more xenophobic. Avoid all risk, even calculated, in business. Have difficulty introducing new ideas and concepts Examples: Greece (highest score), Belgium, Germany, France, Portugal, Japan, Israel, Spain, Latin America
• Countries with low uncertainty avoidance scores:
• Have a younger or shorter history. • Have a more diverse population and encourage immigrants to assimilate. • Embrace risk as a part of business. • Frequently innovate. • Examples: Singapore (lowest score), U.S.A., Jamaica, Ireland, Sweden, China, India
Masculinity vs. Femininity
• Measures the degree to which societies do or do not enforce a traditional masculine work role model of male achievement, control, and power. • Refers to gender connotations for values – either masculine or feminine, where male traits are predominantly assertive and female traits are predominantly nurturing. • The value does not measure gender roles. • Cultures that are “feminine” frequently have low levels of gender equality – such as countries of the Middle East.
Life’s priorities: achievement, wealth, expansion and war. Conflicts are settled with aggressive means. Women and men have different roles. “Live to work:” long hours, short vacations. Manufacturing and business dominate. Cultural origins did not require cooperation. Icon is a warrior or entrepeneur. Few women are present in politics.
Masculine Societies: Japan (highest score) USA UK Germany Ireland Italy Mexico India
Feminine Societies: Sweden (lowest score) Spain Portugal Thailand Costa Rica West Africa The Middle East
Life’s priorities are family, relationships and quality of life. Conflicts are solved through negotiation. Men and women should share equal positions in society. “Work to live:” longer vacations, flexible working hours. Arts and healing dominate. Cultural origins required cooperation for survival. Icon is a community nurturer. High number of women in politics.
Long term vs. Short term Orientation
• Describes a society’s “time horizon” and the importance attached to the future, past, and/or present. • Is based on the influence of Confucian thought on a society. • Long term Orientation: • persistence • ordering relationships by status • thrift • having a sense of shame
China (highest) Eastern Nations Western Nations Developing Nations Pakistan (lowest)
• Short term Orientation: • personal steadiness and stability • protecting your ‘face’ • respect for tradition • reciprocation of greetings, favors, and gifts
North Carolinian Foreign-Born Population
• From the 2000 Census and the 2005 American Community Survey.
• 5.3% of North Carolina’s population is foreign born.
10.7% of Orange County’s population is foreign born.
• 8.0% of North Carolina’s population speaks a language other than English in the home.
11.9% of Orange County’s population speaks a language other than English in the home.
• The unreported immigrant/alien population of North Carolina is estimated at 300,000 persons. • The foreign born population is estimated at 11, 591 people in Orange County.
Of that, 7, 407 people (in 2005) were not US/ naturalized citizens.
Foreign-Born Population by Region of Birth
South and East 95,258 Asia Central America
I vs. C
M vs. F
The United StatesBalance of power, high individualism, innovative but governed by laws, masculine assertiveness valued.
MexicoHigh value on hierarchical relationships and perpetuates inequality, preference for conformity to tradition, risk aversion, masculine assertiveness valued.
ChinaHigh value on hierarchical relationships, conformity expected, group valued more, risk taken in business, masculine assertiveness valued.
IndiaHigh value on hierarchical relationships, group valued more, risk in business, balance of masculine and feminine traits.
High value on hierarchical relationships, conformity expected, group valued more, risk taken in business, masculine assertiveness valued.
RussiaHigh value on authority and hierarchy, conformity valued, risk avoided in favor of tradition, “work to live” values feminine traits.
The United States
Time and Punctuality: Time is strict for business and professional settings – starting and stopping times are considered firm. It is expected that changes in appointments and time will be communicated. In social settings, time is more fluid and punctuality is suggested but “making an entrance” can be more important than being prompt.
Languages: English (de facto official language), with 300 recognized languages, including 150 indigenous languages, American Sign Language, Gullah, Creole, Spanish, and French.
Education: Public education requirements have prevented education from becoming a tool of hierarchy until higher education levels. A “good” education is increasingly necessary for professional success, including in technical trades, and attending the “right” school can help develop professional opportunities.
- “Masculine” country on the Hofstede index, indicating an intention for assertive tendencies. -Traditional gender roles have been/ are being broken down by legal and social means. -Gender equality is largely recognized with the exceptions of national politics, asymmetrical warfare, and issues of equal pay. -Gender equality is defined as the ability of women to enter male dominated professions, not men entering predominately female professions.
-Family structure and composition is diverse. -Dual-earner and single-head of household families are increasingly common. -Leaving the family is expected, but family values and expectations are largely defined by cultural and/or ethnical background.
Feelings of Pride and Shame
- Low score on Hofstede’s Uncertainty Avoidance scale. -Risk is taken – innovative is promoted and rewarded; risk seen as a necessary consequence of business. - Feelings of pride in work and nation are common, as well as issues based pride. -More critical feelings of pride and shame are a result of cultural/ethnic background.
Languages: Spanish (de facto official language), 62 recognized American languages, including Nahuatl, Maya, Lacandon, Kickapoo, Cherokee and English Time and Punctuality: Time is fluid and punctuality is expected but “on-time” particularly in social environment - can mean at least 30 minutes past a stated time. The pervasive stereotype of “Latin time” is not an indication of disrespect or laziness but should be seen as an expression of historic and cultural beliefs in predestination and the cyclical nature of life events. Education: Historically, education was a tool of social mobility for the non-European populations. At present, education is valued as an indication of status and achievement.
-“Masculine” country on the Hofstede index, indicating an intention for assertive tendencies. - Specific gender roles historically and culturally proscribed by the values of machismo and marianismo. -Machismo promotes masculine dominance over family and children, self-reliance, and aggression as a tool to satisfy goals. -Marianismo promotes feminine spirituality and an association with the Virgin of Guadalupe and reinforces domestic roles as preferred jobs. -Increasing globalization and international economic exposure is breaking down traditional gender roles (slowly).
-Families and communities are united. -Loyalty to family is absolute, including protecting and defending family honor. -Community can mean an extend family, a location (city, town, plaza), a school, etc. -Working and socializing together is expected.
Feelings of Pride and Shame
-High score on Hofstede’s Uncertainty Avoidance scale. -Risk is not taken: history, experience and tradition are respected and followed. -Strengthening family honor – and not disrespecting the family name - are important because of the value of family and community.
PR of China
Languages: Mandarin; Chinese regional dialects including Wu, Yue, Min, Xiang, Gan and Hakka; Ethnic minorities speak Thai (Zhuang), Mongolian, Tibetan, Turkic (Uyghur), Hmong, and Korean. Time and Punctuality: Punctuality is important and expected. Being late – without an explanation and without notifying your contact – is considered rude. Punctuality is also preferred in social gatherings.
Education: Education is highly regarded and educators are revered. Choice of school and profession are important, as they are indicators of achievement. A good education, hard work and an honorable profession bring respect to one’s family.
-Moderate score on the Hofstede index, following the Communist system principle of gender equality. -Historically male dominated society, as dictated by Eastern philosophical values and Confuciansim. -As a result of globalization and increased international economic participation, women are entering prominent positions in business and professional society.
-The need to belong and conform – to family, community, workgroup – is deeply rooted in society. -Family is a primary focus of life – relationships are respected and built on age and rank. Nuclear families are small (one child policy) but extended families hold great importance. -The good of the group is absolute and personal goals are subordinate. -Guanxi: building and maintaining relationships is paramount to success. -No actions are undertaken to bring shame on the family.
Feelings of Pride and Shame
-Low score on Hofstede’s Uncertainty Avoidance scale. -Risk is undertaken as a consequence of business. -Shame is brought on an individual and the family, and avoiding shame is necessary. -Actions are undertaken to save face.
Languages: Russian (official language); regionally spoken languages based on ethnic and regional groups Time and Punctuality: Punctuality is important and expected in professional settings and appreciated in social settings.
Education: Education is highly regarded, especially in the fields of science and math. Educational institutions and the completion of the educational process are recognized as the means of obtaining profitable employment. Feelings of Pride and Shame: -High score on Hofstede’s Uncertainty Avoidance scale: risk is discouraged in favor of tradition. -Pride is based on tradition and culture, accomplishments in academics and education. - Tradition of fatalism leads itself to acceptance of outcomes as predetermined.
-“Feminine” country on the Hofstede index, indicating an embrace of nurturing actions. - Most doctors are female. - Similar to China, goal of Communist system was gender equality. -“Work to live” values. -Femininity valued: allowing door to be held, chairs pulled out, working in the home, rearing children. -Attitudes about gender have become less polarized, and being female can be an advantage professionally.
-Similar to the US, there is no one accepted definition of family. -Family types include non-tradition families, single-head of household, extended families, etc. -Great respect is paid to the babushkas (grandmothers), and the babushkas are frequently seen as de facto heads of household. - Most nuclear families are small (one child).
Languages: Polish (official language – spoken by 97% of the population); some Russian and Slavic languages Time and Punctuality: Punctuality is important and expected in professional settings and appreciated in social settings. Staying later than stated (in social settings) is routine. Education: Education is highly regarded, and has been a historical goal of Polish leadership. Post-communist Poland has faced controversy on the role of religion in education, and a 1991 directive mandated religious education required students to participate in religious or ethics studies. Moral education is considered to be a component of public education. Feelings of Pride and Shame: -High score on Hofstede’s Uncertainty Avoidance scale: risk is discouraged in favor of tradition. -Pride is based on accomplishments, cultural tradition and heritage.
-Moderately “masculine” country on the Hofstede index: learns to assertive tendencies. - Moving toward gender equality in the post-World War II period, although legislated gender equality has been stymied in some cases as a result of the Communist past. - Professions such as education and social work are becoming “feminized” but in most professions women earn 30% less than man. -Man see their role as a wage earner and frequently seek jobs in higher paying professions. -Society is traditionally – and to some extent still – male dominated.
-Emerged during Communist rule as the strengthened center of Polish life. -The extended family is charged with ensuring the sufficiency of members and helping those who cannot provide for themselves. -Women are encouraged to rear children in the home and since the 1990s, the number of independent daycare providers has fallen significantly.
When we want culture more than potatoes, and illumination more than sugar-plums, then the great resources of a world are taxed and drawn out, and the result, or staple production, is not slaves, nor operatives, but men – those rare fruits called heroes, saints, poets, philosophers, and redeemers.
Henry David Thoreau Life without Principle (1863)