# Open Channel Hydraulics

Fundamental Equation
wakhidatik@yahoo.com
Sept 14
th
2011
Fundamental Equation
• Conservation of matter (mass)
Matter cannot be created nor destroyed, but it may
be converted
• Conservation of Energy
Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but may be
converted from one type to another
• Conservation of momentum
A moving body cannot gain or lose momentum
unless acted upon by an external force  F = m.a
9/15/2011 2 wakhidatik@yahoo.com
Conservation of Mass
mass transfer = 0
Q
1
= Q
2
A
1
*V
1
= A
2
*V
2
x
Q
1
2
The net mass transfer rate into element be equal to
the rate of change of mass of water inside the
element.
µ*[(Q-dQ/dx*∆x/2) – (Q+dQ/dx*∆x/2)] =
µ*dA/dt*∆x

– dQ/dx*∆x/2 – dQ/dx*∆x/2 = dA/dt*∆x
– dQ/dx*∆x = dA/dt*∆x

– dQ/dx = dA/dt
Q – dQ/dx*∆x/2
Q + dQ/dx*∆x/2
The net rate of flow into the volume be equal to the rate of change of storage inside the volume (HECRAS Ref. Manual)
9/15/2011 3 wakhidatik@yahoo.com
Conservation of Momentum
See: Newton’s second law and continuity equation
Net rate of momentum transfer into the element
Sum of the external forces in the flow direction
Time rate of change of the momentum accumulated
within the element
Law of Conservation of Momentum :
+
u
x
µ*Q
1
*v
1

µ*Q
2
*v
2

External Forces =
Hydrostatic
Pressure, Weight,
Friction, etc
9/15/2011 4 wakhidatik@yahoo.com
Conservation of Momentum
u
x
µ*Q
1
*v
1

µ*Q
2
*v
2

Hydrostatic Pressure
(1&2)
= ¸*y
1
*A
1
- ¸*y
2
*A
2

Weight component = ¸*A*∆x*sinu
Friction Force = - F
f

Sum of
External
Forces
¸*y
1
*A
1

¸*y
2
*A
2

F
f

¸*A*∆x*sinu
Momentum transfer = µ*Q
1
*v
1

- µ*Q
2
*v
2

Momentum within element:
= dm*v
= (µ*dV)*v
= µ*(A*dx)*v

Time rate of change of
accumulation momentum:
= µ*A*∆x*v/∆t
= µ*∆x*∆Q/∆t
y=1/2h
9/15/2011 5 wakhidatik@yahoo.com
Conservation of Momentum
F
f
= S
f
*¸*A*∆x …………….. (function of friction force due to friction slope)
S
0
= sin u …………….. (longitudinal channel bottom slope)
µ*∆x*∆Q/∆t = ¸*y
1
*A
1
- ¸*y
2
*A
2
+ ¸*A*∆x*sinu + S
f
*¸*A*∆x + µ*Q
1
*v
1

- µ*Q
2
*v
2

∆Q/∆t = g*(y
1
*A
1
- *y
2
*A
2
)/ ∆x + g*A*S
0
+ S
f
*g*A + (Q
1
*v
1

- Q
2
*v
2
)/∆x

dQ/dt + dQ/dx + g*A*dy/dx + g*A*(S
f
- S
0
)= 0
Gradually varied flow  ∆x and ∆t ~ 0
9/15/2011 6 wakhidatik@yahoo.com
Conservation of Energy
Net rate of energy transfer into the element
Time rate of change of total energy stored in the volume
element
Law of Conservation of Energy:
+
Energy
Potential
Energy
m.g. h µ*A*∆x*g*z
c
Kinetic Energy ½. m.v
2
µ*A*∆x*1/2*v
2
Internal Energy m.e µ*A*∆x*e
9/15/2011 7 wakhidatik@yahoo.com
Conservation of Energy
x
A
µ*Q
1
(g*z
1
+o*1/2*v
1
2
+e
1
)
µ*Q
2
(g*z
2
+o*1/2*v
2
2
+e
2
)
o= kinetic energy correction coefficient
e = internal energy per unit mass of water
Power due to
Hydrostatic force
= F
1
*v
1 F
2
*v
2
= µ*g*y
2
*A
2
*v
2

Time rate of change of total energy stored = ∆{µ*A*∆x*(g*z+1/2*v
2
+e)}/ ∆t
9/15/2011 8 wakhidatik@yahoo.com
Conservation of Energy
∆{µ*A*∆x*(g*z+1/2*v
2
+e)}/ ∆t =
µ*Q
1
(g*z
1
+o*1/2*v
1
2
+e
1
) - µ*Q
2
(g*z
2
+o*1/2*v
2
2
+e
2
) + µ*g*(y
1
*Q
1
- y
2
*Q
2
)
∆{µ*A*(g*z+1/2*v
2
+e)}/ ∆t =
µ{Q
1
(g*z
1
+o*1/2*v
1
2
+e
1
) - Q
2
(g*z
2
+o*1/2*v
2
2
+e
2
) +g*(y
1
*Q
1
- y
2
*Q
2
)}/ ∆x
At any section (x) ; z
x
+y
x
= z
b
+y
Gradually varied flow  ∆x and ∆t ~ 0
∆{µ*A*(g*z+1/2*v
2
+e)}/ ∆t =
µ{Q
1
(g*z
1
+ g*y
1
+o*1/2*v
1
2
+e
1
) - Q
2
(g*z
2
+ g*y
2
+o*1/2*v
2
2
+e
2
)}/ ∆x
bernoulli equation
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
c
c
=
c
+ + c
e v gy gz Q
x t
gz v e
2
2
2
1
)
2
1
(
o µ
9/15/2011 9 wakhidatik@yahoo.com

but it may be converted • Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created nor destroyed.com 2 . but may be converted from one type to another • Conservation of momentum A moving body cannot gain or lose momentum unless acted upon by an external force  F = m.a 9/15/2011 wakhidatik@yahoo.Fundamental Equation • Conservation of matter (mass) Matter cannot be created nor destroyed.

com 3 . Manual) 9/15/2011 wakhidatik@yahoo. Q *[(Q-dQ/dx*∆x/2) – (Q+dQ/dx*∆x/2)] = *dA/dt*∆x – dQ/dx*∆x/2 – dQ/dx*∆x/2 = dA/dt*∆x – dQ/dx*∆x = dA/dt*∆x – dQ/dx = dA/dt 1 x 2 The net rate of flow into the volume be equal to the rate of change of storage inside the volume (HECRAS Ref.Conservation of Mass Q – dQ/dx*∆x/2 Q + dQ/dx*∆x/2 Steady Flow : mass transfer = 0 Q1 = Q 2 A1*V1 = A2*V2 unSteady Flow : The net mass transfer rate into element be equal to the rate of change of mass of water inside the element.

Conservation of Momentum See: Newton’s second law and continuity equation Law of Conservation of Momentum : Net rate of momentum transfer into the element Sum of the external forces in the flow direction Time rate of change of the momentum accumulated within the element External Forces = Hydrostatic Pressure. etc + *Q1*v1 *Q2*v2 x 9/15/2011  wakhidatik@yahoo. Weight.com 4 . Friction.

com 5 .*y2*A2 Weight component = *A*∆x*sin Friction Force = .Conservation of Momentum *Q1*v1 *Q2*v2 *y1*A1 y=1/2h *A*∆x*sin *y2*A2 x Ff  Sum of External Forces For steady flow  0 Hydrostatic Pressure (1&2) = *y1*A1 .Ff Momentum transfer = *Q1*v1 .*Q2*v2 9/15/2011 Momentum within element: = dm*v = (*dV)*v = *(A*dx)*v Time rate of change of accumulation momentum: = *A*∆x*v/∆t = *∆x*∆Q/∆t wakhidatik@yahoo.

*y2*A2)/ ∆x + g*A*S0+ Sf*g*A + (Q1*v1 .S0)= 0 9/15/2011 wakhidatik@yahoo.Q2*v2)/∆x Gradually varied flow  ∆x and ∆t ~ 0 dQ/dt + dQ/dx + g*A*dy/dx + g*A*(Sf .com 6 . (longitudinal channel bottom slope) *∆x*∆Q/∆t = *y1*A1 ..*Q2*v2 ∆Q/∆t = g*(y1*A1 . (function of friction force due to friction slope) …………….Conservation of Momentum Ff = Sf**A*∆x S0 = sin  …………….*y2*A2 + *A*∆x*sin + Sf**A*∆x + *Q1*v1 ..

v2 *A*∆x*1/2*v2 Internal Energy m. m.com 7 .Conservation of Energy Law of Conservation of Energy: Net rate of energy transfer into the element Net rate of energy added + Time rate of change of total energy stored in the volume element Potential Energy Energy Kinetic Energy m.e *A*∆x*e 9/15/2011 wakhidatik@yahoo. h *A*∆x*g*zc ½.g.

com 8 .Conservation of Energy *Q1(g*z1+*1/2*v12+e1) *Q2(g*z2+*1/2*v22+e2) = kinetic energy correction coefficient e = internal energy per unit mass of water A Power due to Hydrostatic force = F1*v1 x F2*v2 = *g*y2*A2*v2 Time rate of change of total energy stored = ∆{*A*∆x*(g*z+1/2*v2+e)}/ ∆t 9/15/2011 wakhidatik@yahoo.

y2*Q2)}/ ∆x ∆{*A*(g*z+1/2*v2+e)}/ ∆t = {Q1(g*z1+ g*y1 +*1/2*v12+e1) .*Q2(g*z2+*1/2*v22+e2) + *g*(y1*Q1 .com 9 .Q2(g*z2+*1/2*v22+e2) +g*(y1*Q1 .Conservation of Energy ∆{*A*∆x*(g*z+1/2*v2+e)}/ ∆t = *Q1(g*z1+*1/2*v12+e1) . zx+yx = zb+y 1  (e  v 2  gz)    1  2   Q gz  gy   v 2  e  t x   2  For steady flow  bernoulli equation 9/15/2011 wakhidatik@yahoo.y2*Q2) ∆{*A*(g*z+1/2*v2+e)}/ ∆t = {Q1(g*z1+*1/2*v12+e1) .Q2(g*z2+ g*y2+*1/2*v22+e2)}/ ∆x Unsteady flow : Gradually varied flow  ∆x and ∆t ~ 0 At any section (x) .

.

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