Self-Regulating Oxygen Delivery System

Lauren Ehardt Katelyn Klein Jason Nixon Advisors: Dr. Debatosh Debnath Dr. Cheryl Riley-Doucet

Outline

 



Introduction Problem Goals Background Benefits of Automatic Control System Design Future Plans

Introduction

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Supplemental oxygen is one of the most widely used therapies for people admitted to the hospital One million COPD patients in US Manual oxygen control is the norm
[NHLBI, 2006]

Who is this?

Need for Automatic Control  No device exists to automatically regulate oxygen flow to a patient .

Neonatal Environment    Manual control of oxygen delivery Patient to nurse ratio is high Lack of awareness: effects of hyper-oxygenation [Firestone. 2007] http://news.jpg .thomasnet.com/images/large/498/498329.

2000] .Outpatient Setting   Difficult to prescribe oxygen flow rates Oxygen levels vary   Activity level Environment [Pilling. 1999]  No set standard to determine oxygen flow rate [Guyatt.

Project Goals    Design a self-regulating device Control oxygen flow based on SpO2 readings Automatically adjust valve opening based on pulse oximeter signal .

Project Goals (contd.)  Device features       Safe Reliable Easy to use Customizable Portable Cost-effective .

Oxygen Therapy: Background      Oxygen saturation Oxygen therapy patients Hyper-oxygenation Mechanisms of oxygen therapy Current research .

2001] Hypo-oxygenation: SaO2 < 90% [Woods. 2005]  Normal infant SaO2 = 86-92% .Oxygen Saturation of Blood   Why do we need oxygen? Measured as percentage: [ HbO 2 ] SaO2  [Total  hemoglobin] Oxygen Saturation of Arterial Blood: SaO2 = true oxygen saturation SpO2 = measured by pulse oximeter  Normal adult SaO2 = 97-99%  [Schutz.

1999] .Oxygen Therapy Patients  Adults suffering from respiratory failure     Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Pneumonia Asthma Treatment: Long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) Supplemental oxygen is most common form of therapy  Neonates  [Pilling.

2006]  Neonates    Lung toxicity Brain toxicity Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) www.cartage.gif .org./humrespsys4.lb/..Hyper-oxygenation  CO2 retention [Mack..

Stevie Wonder Suffered from Retinopathy of Prematurity .

jsdobbs. 2007] www.ie/jsdobbs/Main/Products_Oxygen.Mechanisms of Oxygen Therapy  Low flow delivery systems (0-15 lpm)   Variable performance Nasal canulla and face masks Fixed performance For respiratory assistance in addition to supplemental oxygen  High flow delivery systems (>15 lpm)   [McGloin.htm .

)  Three oxygen sources    Liquid Oxygen Oxygen Cylinder Oxygen Concentrator http://www.waldosworld.lib.pdf ] .hku.org/gallery03/oxygentank.Mechanisms of Oxygen Therapy (contd.jpg [sunzi1.hk/hkjo/view/21/2100807.

Mechanisms of Oxygen Therapy (contd.gehealthcare.)  Oxygen flowmeter  Controls oxygen flow rate  Oxygen blender   Controls oxygen concentration and flow rate Mixes oxygen and air http://www.com/usen/suction_oxygen/oxygen_therapy/imag es/blender_c_l.jpg .

)  Measuring oxygen saturation   Pulse oximetry  Non-invasive Oximeters use alarms www.Mechanisms of Oxygen Therapy (contd.co.uk/images/nonin-3100-pulse.jpg [Kamat.medisave. 2002] .

Current Research  Columbia Life Systems  SmartBlender™ [http://smartblender. 2007]  Hospitals are switching to oxygen blenders .com/index.html]  Saturation Driven Oxygen Therapy (SDOT)  Computer simulation shows automatic control is more effective in maintaining constant SpO2 than manual control [Iobbi.

2005] .Benefits of Automatic Control  Automatic adjustment of oxygen delivery   Increases amount of time patients spend in desired SpO2 range Decreases hypo-oxygenation events [Zhu.

Benefits (contd. 2007]  Improve quality of care  Lessen nurse workload Prevent inappropriate action to reduce alarms  Fewer alarms  .)  Avoid fluctuations in SpO2  Prevent severe ROP [Zoidis.

Project Design .

HCS12 Microcontroller     Program in C Runs up to 25 MHz Pulse width modulation (PWM) controls current to the proportional valve Serial communication interface (SCI) receives data from pulse oximetry board .

Pulse Oximeter Sensor  Two LEDs emit red and infrared wavelengths of light through skin   Hb absorbs red wavelengths HbO2 absorbs infrared wavelengths    Photodetector on other side picks up intensity of transmitted light SpO2 is calculated by analyzing received light Utilizes cardiac pulse to distinguish arterial blood from other mediums Hb = hemoglobin not bound to oxygen HbO2 = hemoglobin bound to oxygen .

Pulse Oximetry Board BCI OEM 31392B1 Board     Low power Data outputs: SpO2 and pulse rate Eight second average (or instantaneous) Serial communication .

Parker Proportional Valve Parker Valve    Controls the flow based on input voltage PWM generates variable input voltage Oxygen safe .

Project Design .

Cost Analysis Microcontroller Proportional valve Oximeter board Pulse oximeter sensors Oxygen tubing $90 $60 $135 $15 $2 ($200 individual unit) ($90 individual unit) Blenders cost $1000+ Oxygen source $50 Project Total: $352 .

Progress      Literature reviews  50+ research articles Visited respiratory therapist at Crittenton Hospital Researched valves and oximeter boards from many manufacturers Finished introduction of paper Started learning HCS12 modules .

)       Received valve Received oximeter board Purchased oxygen tubing from Crittenton Medical Equipment store Flow meter from Binson’s Purchased helium tank Continue learning HCS12 modules .Progress (contd.

Prototype .

Final Goals    Working prototype by July 16th Finish paper Create poster .

This work was supported in part by the Bioengineering and Bioinformatics Summer Institutes Program of the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation under grant 0609152.Acknowledgement We thank Kristen Munyan of Beaumont Hospital for introducing us to the problem and Steve Yax of Crittenton Hospital Medical Center for answering our questions on respiratory equipment. .

L. Pilling and M. 116. Adams. 1999.References        T. “Oxygen administration in the neonate. S. 1303-1308.” AACN Procedure Manual for Critical Care.” Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews. pp. “Appropriateness of domiciliary oxygen delivery. 22.. 2. “Evidence-based oxygen therapy for very low birth weight infants. 4. pp. 2000. 2. 63-672. vol. vol.” Chest. vol. et al. 2007.” Chest. J. G. 145. D. . no. 118. “Newborn care manual. NHLBI Communications Office. Woods. no. Schutz. H. 006. International Association for Maternal and Neonatal Health. Firestone and H. pp 77-82. 2001.” Journal of Pediatric Nursing.” Unit 26. 2005. 6. vol. 314-321. “HLBI and CMS launch large study of home oxygen therapy for COPD. 2006. K.” NIH News. pp. Croxton. Cutaia. vol. “Oxygen saturation monitoring by pulse oximetry. p. “Ambulatory oximetry monitoring in patients with severe COPD: A preliminary study. L. Mack. Guyatt. E.

Iobbi.” Respiratory Medicine. 1. A. 2008.better way to prescribe long-term oxygen therapy. Zoidis. no. 2002. M. and R. “Retinopathy of prematurity: latest evidence regarding the use of supplemental oxygen. S. pp. 2007.” Indian Journal of Anaesthesia. D.” RT for Decision Makers in Respiratory Care. 99. 115–123. pp.. Simonds. vol. V. 4. 22. et al. K. 46. Zhu. 2007. “Administration of oxygen therapy. vol. 2005. 1386– 1392. vol. 21.” Nursing Standard. 261-268. “Oximetry feedback flow control simulation for oxygen therapy. J. 21. no. no. vol. “Pulse oximetry. pp. Dickinson. G. McGloin. . “Continuous oxygen monitoring.” Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing. pp. 20-22. pp. Kamat. 46-48. vol.References (continued)      Z. 20.

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