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Black Start and Restoration of Power System

Definition of Grid Incident as per CEA


Grid Incident is tripping of one or more power system elements of the Grid like a Generator, Transmission Line, Transformer, Shunt Reactor, Series Capacitor and Static VAR Compensator (SVC), which requires rescheduling of Generation or Load, without total loss of supply at a SubStation or loss of integrity of the Grid at 220 kV and above (132 kV and above in case of North Eastern Region)

Definition of Grid Disturbance as per CEA


Grid Disturbance is tripping of one or more power system elements of the Grid like a Generator, Transmission Line, Transformer, Shunt Reactor, Series Capacitor and Static VAR Compensator (SVC), resulting in total power failure or supply at a Sub-Station or loss of integrity of the Grid, at the level of transmission system at 220 kV and above ( 132 kV and above in the case of North Eastern Region ).

TYPE OF GRID INCIDENT


In increasing order of severity, Grid Incident (GI) is categorized as
GI 1: Tripping of one or more power system elements of the Grid like a Generator, Transmission Line, Transformer, Shunt Reactor, Series Capacitor and Static VAR Compensator (SVC), which requires rescheduling of Generation or Load, without total loss of supply at a Sub-Station or loss of integrity of the Grid at 220 kV (132 kV in case of North Eastern Region) GI 2: Tripping of one or more power system elements of the Grid like a Generator, Transmission Line, Transformer, Shunt Reactor, Series Capacitor and Static VAR Compensator (SVC), which requires rescheduling of Generation or Load, without total loss of supply at a Sub-Station or loss of integrity of the Grid at 400 kV and above (220 kV and above in case of North Eastern Region)

TYPE OF GRID DISTURBANCE


In increasing order of severity, Grid Disturbances (GD) is categorized as
GD 1: When loss of antecedent generation / load is less than 10% in a regional Grid GD 2: When loss of antecedent generation / load is between 10% to less than 20% in a regional Grid GD 3: When loss of antecedent generation / load is between 20% to less than 30% in a regional Grid GD 4: When loss of antecedent generation / load is between 30% to less than 40% in a regional Grid GD 5: When loss of antecedent generation / load is 40% or more

Recovery Procedures
A. Detailed plans and procedures for restoration of the regional grid under partial/total blackout shall be developed by RLDC in consultation with NLDC, all Users, STU,SLDC, CTU and RPC Secretariat and shall be reviewed / updated annually. B. Detailed plans and procedures for restoration after partial/total blackout of each Users/STU/CTU system within a Region, will be finalized by the concerned Users/STU/CTU in coordination with the RLDC. The procedure will be reviewed, confirmed and/or revised once every subsequent year. Mock trial runs of the procedure for different subsystems shall be carried out by the Users/CTU/STU at least once every six months under intimation to the RLDC. Diesel Generator sets for black start would be tested on weekly basis and test report shall be sent to RLDC on quarterly basis.

C. List of generating stations with black start facility, interState/interregional ties, synchronizing points and essential loads to be restored on priority, shall be prepared and be available with NLDC, RLDC and SLDC. D. The RLDC is authorised during the restoration process following a black out, to operate with reduced security standards for voltage and frequency as necessary in order to achieve the fastest possible recovery of the grid. E. All communication channels required for restoration process shall be used for operational communication only, till grid normalcy is restored.

Objective
RESTORING NORMAL SYSTEM OPERATION AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE ESTABLISHING ALL INTERCONNECTIONS RESTORING ESSENTIAL LOADS SYNCHRONISING OF ATLEAST ONE UNIT AT ALL POWER STATION STARTING ALLOCATION OF C. S SHARE STARTING ECONOMIC DISPATCH MINIMIZING AMOUNT OF UNSERVED ENERGY

Possible System Problems


UNIT UNIT FAILURE FAILURE LOSS OF LOSS OF GENERATION GENERATION INSUFFICIENT INSUFFICIENT GENERATION GENERATION LOSS OF LOSS OF LOAD LOAD SYSTEM COLLAPS E

TRANSFORMER/ LINE FAILURE

BUS ISOLATED

REDUCED NETWORK REDUNDANCY

LINE OVERLOAD OR UNSATISFACT ORY BUS VOLTAGE

ISLANDING

Types of Blackouts
Localized Partial System Full System With Outside support Full System Without Outside support
Restoration strategy may be different for each type of outage !

Causes of Blackouts
Conditions that could contribute to a system blackout:
Maintenance (Planned & forced) outages Heavy/Uncontrolled loop flow through system Changing generation patterns Weather Unexpected events/FAULTS Relay mal-operation Circuit breaker failure

Causes of Blackouts
Cascading Thermal over loads Voltage Instability Dynamic Instability Load Generation Imbalance
Power Flow Stability Limit Voltage Limit Thermal Limit

Total Transfer capability

Time Horizon

Causes of Blackouts
Common Sequence of events in blackouts
Initiating Events Load /Generation Imbalance in islands Blackout of Islands
System Separation

Formatio n of Islands Begin Restoration Process

Common Concerns
TIME CONSUMING NATURE OF SWITCHING OPERATION START-UP TIMINGS OF THERMAL UNITS COLD LOAD INRUSH, POWER FACTORS AND COINCIDENT DEMAND FACTORS AVAILABILITY OF GOVERNOR FACILITIES OF UNITS

Problems /Constraints
RE-ASSEMBLING TIE ELEMENTS OF POWER SYSTEM. IMPAIRED COMMUNICATIONS,LIMITED INFORMATION. NON-AVAILABILITY OF SCADA/EMS APPLICATION SYSTEM. UNFAMILIARITY WITH THE SITUATION (DOES NOT OCCUR REGULARLY) TIME CONSTRAINTS

Restoration Tasks
INITIAL ASSESSMENT SYSTEM STATUS DETERMINATION PLANT PREPARATION SERVICES/START-UP NETWORK PREPARATION NETWORK ENERGISATION LOAD RESTORATION SYSTEM REBUILDING

INITIAL COURSE OF ACTION


Assess extent of black out Check whether any sub-system/island is alive or not Check the interconnection with other region(s)

RLDC

Appraise the severity of disturbance to all concerned Chalk out the optimum path for restoration Defer all planned outage as per IEGC 5.74 (g) Open all circuit breakers

Power Station / Sub-station

Note relay indications and reset them Check for damage or technical snag developed at any element

Important Considerations during Restoration


Generating Stations having black-start facilities start up immediately. Generation availability in each island / sub
system to be ensured

RLDC / SLDC

Risky synchronization should be


avoided

Load to be added in small steps with


smaller and radial loads preceding larger load.

Transmission lines available in the interconnection between islands / sub systems to be ensured. Coordinate the load pick-ups with the Proper coordination before
synchronization of two islands ramp rate of generation to maintain sustainable frequency (around 50 Hz) .

Restoration work should be shared &


coordinated among the shift personnel

Shift personnel should preferably be


retained till restoration is over

Shift personnel of sub/power-station


shall be promptly formulated the restoration strategy to be adopted

Important Considerations during Restoration

Power / Sub-Station
Governor and AVR are to be kept in manual mode, if required A reasonable active to reactive power ratio is to be maintained to operate the machine normally Auxiliary available power to be readily

Tap Position of Transformer, Bus Voltage and frequency shall be closely monitored to avert over fluxing UFRs, SPS, UVR to be kept deactivated

Total auxiliary power drawn is to be kept within 3% of the sources capacity Ascertain whether machines can supply the power, while releasing loads

Special Consideration in extending/availing start up power Power Plant Operators should be able to differentiate between

Full auxiliary power needed to start all machines Minimum auxiliary power needed to start a minimum number of machines

Considerations to be kept in mind for availing start up power


Nearness to the source 132 kV lines vis --vis 220 kV/ 400 kV lines

Shorter route having a number of intermediate sub-stations Longer route having very few/ no intermediate sub-stations

Special Consideration in extending/availing start up power Clear-cut authority should be given to SLDC for extending start up power from one sub-system to another sub-system or from one constituent to another constituent as

oLine through which start up power is to be extended oQuantum of such start up power oNormal time period admissible
Concerned SLDC should also be empowered to resort to load shedding or bring up additional generation wherever possible, to extend start up power to neighboring sub- systems/constituents during the period of crisis.

SOME DONTS

Do not panic Do not load any generator beyond 80% of its capacity Do not load any line/ICT beyond 80% of its capacity Do not hastily connect loads and ensure that the island / sub-system frequency be within sustainable range

Extended power should not be withdrawn except in case of extreme emergency and without intimation to RLDC No communication disputes should be raised during the restoration period. Load dispatch centers should not be disturbed while discharging their duties and expected to function as Management information system.

Restoration Process
Bottom-up/Build-up Strategy
Steps involved in the Bottom-up Strategy
Select units to black-start. Start and stabilize black-start units. Determine restoration transmission path. Begin expanding island(s) by restoring transmission and load. Synchronize island(s) when appropriate.

Build-up Strategy
Multiple island Method of Restoration

Build-up Strategy
Core island Method of Restoration

Build-up Strategy
Backbone island Method of Restoration

Restoration Process

op-down / Build down strategy


Restore backbone transmission system, usually from outside assistance. Restore critical generating station and substation load from transmission system. Bring more generation. Restore underlying transmission system. Continue restoring load.

Build-Down Strategy
Core island Method of Restoration

Combination Approach
Combines the Build-up and Build-down approach. Steps in this approach include:
Restoring transmission from an outside source at the same time as building islands of generation. Interconnecting islands with each other or outside source when able.

Combination Approach

Selection of Restoration Strategy


Restoration method chosen depends on:
Extent of blackout Availability of outside assistance Availability of internal black-start generation Utility philosophy/procedure

Load Restoration
Priority load for restoration
Generating Unit auxiliary power Nuclear Station auxiliary power

Substation light and power Traction Supplies Supply to Collieries Natural gas or oil supply facilities

Existing Black Start Facilities in NER

ISGS : NEEPCO
POWER STATION INSTALLED CAPACITY (MW) UNIT TYPE SOURCE START UP FACILITY CAPACITY in kVA BLACK START FACILITY

KHANDONG KHANDONG (KOPILI ST II) KOPILI

2*25 25

HYDRO HYDRO

DG SET DG SET

1X250 1X125

YES YES

4*50

HYDRO

DG SET

1X600

YES

DOYANG

3*25

HYDRO

DG SET

2X625

YES

RANGANADI R. C. NAGAR KATHALGURI

3*135 4*21 4*33.66+ 2*35+ 3*30

HYDRO GAS GAS+STEAM

DG SET DG SET DG SET

1x500 1X250 1X950; 1X250

YES YES NO

contd

ISGS : NHPC
POWER STATION INSTALLED CAPACITY (MW) UNIT TYPE START UP FACILITY SOURCE CAPACITY in kVA 2X315 YES BLACK START FACILITY

LOKTAK

3*35

HYDRO

DG SET

STATE : ASSAM
POWER STATION INSTALLED CAPACITY (MW) UNIT TYPE START UP FACILITY SOURCE CAPACITY in kVA
844 NO NA NA 1X500 YES NO NO NO YES

BLACK START FACILITY

NAMRUP LAKWA ADAMTILA (IPP-DLF) BASKANDI KARBI LANGPI

3*23+12.5+30+22 4*15+3*20 3*3+5 3*3.5 2*50

GAS GAS GAS GAS HYDRO

DG SET NO GRID POWER GRID POWER DG SET

contd

STATE : MEGHALAYA
POWER STATION INSTALLED CAPACITY (MW) UNIT TYPE START UP FACILITY SOURCE CAPACITY in Volt 110 YES BLACK START FACILITY

UMIUM ST I

4*9

HYDRO

Battery Bank Battery Bank

UMIUM ST II

2*9

HYDRO

110

YES

UMIUM ST III

2*30

HYDRO

Battery Bank

110

YES

UMIUM ST IV

2*30

HYDRO

Battery Bank

220

YES

UMTRU

4*2.8

HYDRO

Battery Bank

110

YES

contd

STATE : TRIPURA
POWER STATION INSTALLED CAPACITY (MW) UNIT TYPE START UP FACILITY SOURCE CAPACITY in kVA BLACK START FACILITY

GUMTI

3*5

HYDRO

NO

NO

NO

BARAMURA

2*5+6.5+21

GAS

DG SET

1X380

YES

ROKHIA

6*8+21

GAS

DG SET

2X380

YES

Synchronizing facilities at power stations / major Sub-Stations in NER

CTU : POWERGRID
SUB-STATIONS VOLTAGE LEVEL (kV) SYNCHRONISING FACILITY DG SET DETAILS in kVA

BONGAIGAON SALAKATI BALIPARA MISA DIMAPUR IMPHAL JIRIBAM

400 220 400 400 220 132 132

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

1X250 2X200 2X250 2X250 1X250 1X100 1X70

contd

CTU : POWERGRID
SUB-STATIONS VOLTAGE LEVEL (kV) SYNCHRONISING FACILITY DG SET DETAILS in kVA

HALFLONG AIZWAL KUMARGHAT BADARPUR KHLIEHRIAT NIRJULI ZIRO

132 132 132 132 132 132 132

YES YES YES(NOT OPERATIONAL) YES YES YES YES

1X63 1X63 1X63 1X100 1X100 1X100 1X100

contd

STATE : ASSAM
SUB-STATIONS VOLTAGE LEVEL (kV) SYNCHRONISING FACILITY DG SET DETAILS in kVA

BTPS SARUSAJAI SAMAGURI MARIANI TINSUKIA KAHELIPARA DEPOTA

220 220 220 220 220 132 132

YES YES YES(NOT OPERATIONAL) YES YES YES YES(NOT OPERATIONAL)

NO NO NO NO NO 1X30 NO

contd

STATE : TRIPURA
SUB-STATIONS VOLTAGE LEVEL (kV) SYNCHRONISING FACILITY

79 TILLA (AGARTALA)

132

YES

STATE : MEGHALAYA
SUB-STATIONS VOLTAGE LEVEL (kV) 132 SYNCHRONISING FACILITY

UMIUM STG-I

YES

UMIUM STG-III

132

YES