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Design approaches

according to Eurocode 7
October 2010
Structural Engineering Master program - Irina Lungu Faculty of Civil Engineering and Building Services Iasi

Geotechnical restriction
Ed

<= Rd

Ed = E * Ek Md = Mk / M Rd = Rk / R Parameters with their real values, without safety factors, are named characteristic values with an index k: Ek = characteristic actions, Rk = characteristic resistances.
Parameters with safety factors are named design values with an index d: Ed = design actions, Rd = design resistances.

For the GEO and STR limit states, the three possible design approaches use different sets of partial safety factors:
Design approach 1 with two combinations: Combination 1: A1 + M1 (= 1) + R1 (= 1) safety factors on loads Combination 2: A2 (= 1) + M2 + R1 (= 1) safety factors on materials (soil) for piles: Combination 1: A1 + M1 (= 1) + R1 (= 1) Combination 2: A2 (= 1) + (M1 (= 1) or M2) + R4 (M1 for pile resistance, M2 for unfavorable actions like negative skin friction or transversal loads) Design approach 2: A1 + M1 (= 1) + R2 safety factors on loads and resistances Design approach 3: A2 (= 1) + M2 + R3 (= 1) (A1 for loads from the structure without influence of soil material parameters)

Design example

Stiff till

Vd Rd

Vd design vertical load Rd design bearing resistance

Short term safety undrained conditions for soil Long term safety drained soil condition for soil

partial safety factors on

Actions Permanent loads, unfavorable A1 1.35

Actions - A
A2 1.00

1.00
1.50 0.00

1.00
1.30 0.00

Materials - M
M2 1.25

Materials Angle of internal friction tan()

M1 1.00

Cohesion c
Undrained cohesion cu Unit weight

1.00
1.00 1.00

1.25
1.40 1.00

partial safety factors on

Resistances - R
R1 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.25 1.00 R2 1.40 1.10 1.40 1.10 1.10 R3 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.60 1.30 R4

Resistances Sliding resictance Bearing capacity resistance Passive earth pressure End bearing for bore piles Skin friction for bore piles, compress.

1.25

1.15

1.10

1.60

Rd/A = Rd/A = pcr = (( + 2) cu,d bc sc ic + qd) /R = (( + 2) cu,d sc + qd) /R

b base inclination factor, bc = 1.00 i load inclination factor, ic = 1.00 s shape factor, sc = 1.20 A = A, centric loading case Rd = pcr x A = B2 x (( + 2) cu,d sc + qd) /R = B2 (( +2)(200/M)+22 x 0.8)/ R

DA1 combination 1

A1 + M1 (= 1) + R1 (= 1) safety factors on loads Vd = 1.35 (900 + B2 x 24 x 0.8) + 1.5 x 600 Rd = B2 (( +2)(200/1.00)+22 x 0.8)/1.00

B=?

DA1 combination 2

A2 (= 1) + M2 + R1 (= 1) safety factors on materials (soil) Vd = 1.0 (900 + B2 x 24 x 0.8) + 1.3 x 600 Rd = B2 (( +2)(200/1.4)+22 x 0.8)/1.00

B=?

DA2

A1 + M1 (= 1) + R2 safety factors on loads and resistances Vd = 1.35 (900 + B2 x 24 x 0.8) + 1.5 x 600 Rd = B2 (( +2)(200/1.00)+22 x 0.8)/1.40

B=?

DA3
A1 + M2 + R3 (= 1) A1 for loads from the structure without influence of soil material parameters

B=?

Drained condition long term safety

Rd/A = c Nc bc sc ic + q Nq bq sq iq + 0.5 B N b s i

c = 0 q = 0.8 x ( - w) = 0.8 x (22 9.81) = 9.75kPa A = A = B2; B = B i = all 1.00 b = all 1.00 s = 0.7; sq = 1 + sin

Rd = A (q Nq sq + 0.5 B N 0.7) = B2 (9.75 x Nq x sq + 0.5 x 12.19 x B x N x 0.7

DA1 combination 1

A1 + M1 (= 1) + R1 (= 1) safety factors on loads

Vd = 1.35 (900 + B2 x (24 9.81) x 0.8) + 1.5 x 600 Rd = B2 (9.75 x Nq x sq + 0.5 x 12.19 x B x N x 0.7
Nq = e x tantan2(/4 + '/2) = etan35tan2(/4 + 35.0/2) = 33.30 N = 2(Nq - 1) tan' = 2(33.3 1) tan35 = 45.23 sq = 1 + sin' = 1 + sin35 = 1.57 Rd = B2 (9.75 x 33.3 x 1.57 + 0.5 x 12.19 x B x 45.23 x 0.7)/1.00

B=?

A2 (= 1) + M2 + R1 (= 1) safety factors on materials (soil) Vd = 1.0 (900 + B2 x (24 9.81) x 0.8) + 1.3 x 600 Rd = B2 (9.75 x Nq x sq + 0.5 x 12.19 x B x N x 0.7 'd = tan-1(tan 'k)/M = tan-1(tan35/1.25) = 29.30 Nq = e x tantan2(/4 + '/2) = etan29.3tan2(/4 + 29.3/2) = 16.92 N = 2(Nq - 1) tan' = 2(16.92 1) tan29.3 = 17.84 sq = 1 + sin' = 1 + sin29.3 = 1.49

DA1 combination 2

Rd = B2 (9.75 x 16.92 x 1.49 + 0.5 x 12.19 x B x 17.84 x 0.7)/1.00

B=?

DA2

A1 + M1 (= 1) + R2 safety factors on loads and resistances Vd = 1.35 (900 + B2 x (24-9.81) x 0.8) + 1.5 x 600 Rd = B2 (9.75 x Nq x sq + 0.5 x 12.19 x B x N x 0.7 Nq = e x tantan2(/4 + '/2) = etan35tan2(/4 + 35.0/2) = 33.30 N = 2(Nq - 1) tan' = 2(33.3 1) tan35 = 45.23 sq = 1 + sin' = 1 + sin35 = 1.57 Rd = B2 (9.75 x 33.3 x 1.57 + 0.5 x 12.19 x B x 45.23 x 0.7)/1.40

B=?

DA3
A1 + M2 + R3 (= 1)
A1 for loads from the structure without influence of soil material parameters

Vd = 1.35 (900 + B2 x (24 - 9.81) x 0.8) + 1.5 x 600 Rd = B2 (9.75 x Nq x sq + 0.5 x 12.19 x B x N x 0.7 'd = tan-1(tan 'k)/M = tan-1(tan35/1.25) = 29.30 Nq = e x tantan2(/4 + '/2) = etan29.3tan2(/4 + 29.3/2) = 16.92 N = 2(Nq - 1) tan' = 2(16.92 1) tan29.3 = 17.84 sq = 1 + sin' = 1 + sin29.3 = 1.49 Rd = B2 (9.75 x 16.92 x 1.49 + 0.5 x 12.19 x B x 17.84 x 0.7)/1.00

B=?