Is this behaviour ethical?
Is it ethical to
take office stationary for home use? Make personal long-distance calls from the office? Use company time for personal business? Or do these behaviours constitute stealing?

If you exaggerate your credentials in an interview, is it lying? Is lying to protect a coworker acceptable? How do you differentiate between a bribe and a gift?

Is it immoral to do less than your best in terms of work performance? If there are slight defects in a product you are selling. are you being deceitful? . are you obliged to tell the buyer? If you pretend to be more successful than you are in order to impress your boss.

Values and Ethics Ehtics is an extension of value considerations. There is increasing evidence that ethical practices translate into better financial performance for organizations. WIPRO. Luthans. . (188 Fortune 500 companies convicted for unethical practices had significantly lower return on assets as well as returns on sales. Infosys and L&T show how ethics and profitability go together.2002) In India companies like Tata.

What is Value? Values are broad preferences concerning courses of action or outcomes. . They represent basic convictions that “ a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence”.

but they change slowly Values contain “content attributes”( mode of conduct) and “ intensity attributes” .Certain Characteristics of Values Values contain a judgmental element They are relatively stable and enduring Values are not fixed.

responsible) . helpful. or means of achieving the terminal values ( hardworking.the desirable end-states of existence ( a comfortable life. freedom.Types of Values ( Milton Rokeach Value Survey) Terminal Values. working for the unprivileged) Instrumental values-the preferable modes of behaviour.

finding eternal life Security.Terminal Values           Happiness. satisfaction in life Knowledge and wisdom Peace and harmony in the world Pride in accomplishment Prosperity. wealth Lasting friendships Recognition from peers Salvation. freedom from threat Self-respect .

receptivity to new ideas Self-sufficiency.Instrumental Values           Assertiveness. standing up for yourself Being helpful or caring toward others Dependability. being counted upon by others Education and intellectual pursuits Hard work and achievement Obedience. honesty Being well-mannered and courteous toward others . independence Truthfulness. following the wishes of others Open-mindedness.

In India tolerance. cooperation. respect. god fearing and renunciation are important social values) . sacrifice. peace. equity and democracy are societal values.Sources of Value System A significant portion is established during early years The environment in which the individual is brought up also influences one’s value system Certain values are developed over time and these are continuously reinforced ( In America achievement.

Achievement needs. Religious & cultural values Max Weber’s seminal work Protestant Ethics & the rise of Capitalist Economy argues that the protestant approval of acquisition of property and its investment with a motive to add to personal wealth provided the basis for capitalist economy. renunciation) . Religious orientation (Complacent.Socio-cultural-Work-ethics.

< 30 confident. dislike of authority. confirming.Work values of different generations Veterans(65+) hardworking. team oriented.(20-40) work-life balance. loyalty to relationships Nexters. loyalty to career Xers. loyalty to self & relationship . conservative. dislike of rules. financial success. self reliant. achievement. ambition. team oriented. loyalty Boomers ( 40-65) success.

Values Across Culture (Greet Hofstead's findings) Power distance Individualism versus collectivism Masculinity Vs femininity Uncertainty avoidance .

especially in countries where work values are different. .Certain Conclusions Value system of employees are important They differ among different groups Value system keeps on changing from one generation to another OB theories and concepts are not universally applicable to manage people around the world.

people.What is an attitude? Attitude can be defined as a persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards some object. or events.either favorable or unfavorable –concerning objects. They are evaluative statements. .

Job related Attitudes Job satisfaction Job involvement Organisational commitment .

When there is an inconsistency.Are Attitudes Consistent? People seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behaviour. . attempts are made either to alter the attitudes or the behaviour or to develop rationalization for the discrepancy.

The desire to reduce the dissonance would be determined by• The importance of the elements • The degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements • The rewards that may be involved in the dissonance .Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Leon Festinger) Cognitive Dissonance refers to any incompatibility that an individual might perceive between two or more of his or her attitudes or between his or her behaviour and attitudes.

How to change attitudes? Persuasion Communication New information Resolving the discrepancies Influence of friends & peers Reduced relevance of an object Use of fear and reward Training .

What is job satisfaction? Job satisfaction is the overall attitude of an individual toward his or her job. E.A. . Locke(1976) defines job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience.

. Satisfaction level is going down Satisfaction level varies for different groups JS is a relatively stable disposition.How satisfied people are? People are generally satisfied with their jobs.

of dependents Personality General life satisfaction Personality-job fit .Determinants of Job Satisfaction Organisational Factors Reward system Nature of work Quality of supervision Working condition Supportive colleagues Decentralisation of power Individual Determinants Status and seniority Age Marital Status No.

The Effect of JS on Work Behaviour Job performance Absenteeism Turnover Accidents Customer satisfaction OCB Physical and mental health .

relationship with co-workers are the most important factors contributing to the job satisfaction of Indian managers/supervisor. work itself. Domestic life and adequate money also satisfy them. This is followed by job security. recognition .What satisfies Indian Employees (Results of 17 research studies conducted between 1965to 1997) Managers/Supervisors.Responsibility. achievement. Workers-Most important factor is money. . ( 12 out of 16 studies confirm this).

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