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You are on page 1of 44

Sergio F. Brea

STEM Education Institute Saturday Workshop September 30, 2006

Outline

Introduction to Structural Engineering

Forces in Structures

Structural Systems Civil Engineering Materials

Structural Engineering

What does a Structural Engineer do?

A Structural Engineer designs the structural systems and structural elements in buildings, bridges, stadiums, tunnels, and other civil engineering works (bones)

Design: process of determining location, material, and size of structural elements to resist forces acting in a structure

Identify the problem (challenge) Explore alternative solutions

Research past experience Brainstorm Preliminary design of most promising solutions

Analyze and design one or more viable solutions Testing and evaluation of solution

Experimental testing (prototype) or field tests Peer evaluation

Select material for construction

Determine appropriate structural system for a particular case Determine forces acting on a structure

Calculate size of members and connections to avoid failure (collapse) or excessive deformation

University of Massachusetts Amherst

Forces in Structures

Forces induced by gravity

Dead Loads (permanent): self-weight of structure and attachments Live Loads (transient): moving loads (e.g. occupants, vehicles)

Forces induced by wind Forces induced by earthquakes Forces induced by rain/snow Fluid pressures Others

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Vertical: Gravity

Global Stability

Sliding

Overturning

100 lb

100 lb

Tension

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Compression

100 lb

Bending

Torsion

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Arch

C C T C

Truss

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Frame

Flat Plate

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Folded Plate

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Shells

Definition of Stress

T Stress = Force/Area Section X Example (English Units): T = 1,000 lb (1 kip) A = 10 in2. Stress = 1,000/10 = 100 lb/in2 Example (SI Units): Section X 1 lb = 4.448 N (Newton) 1 in = 25.4 mm T = 1,000 lb x 4.448 N/lb = 4448 N A = 10 in2 x (25.4 mm)2 = 6450 mm2 (1 in)2 T T

University of Massachusetts Amherst

Definition of Strain

T Strain = DL / Lo Example: Lo = 10 in. DL = 0.12 in. Lo

DL

Strain is dimensionless!! (same in English or SI units)

T

University of Massachusetts Amherst

Stress

Strain

Stress Stress

E Strain (a) Linear Elastic Stress Stress Strain (b) Non-linear Elastic

(c) Elastic-plastic

Plastic strain

Strain

Plastic strain

Stone and Masonry

Metals

Cast Iron Steel Aluminum

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Steel

Maximum stress: 40,000 120,000 lb/in2 Maximum strain: 0.2 0.4 Modulus of elasticity: 29,000,000 lb/in2

Concrete

Maximum stress: 4,000 12,000 lb/in2 Maximum strain: 0.004 Modulus of elasticity: 3,600,000 6,200,000 lb/in2

Wood

Values depend on wood grade. Below are some samples Tension stress: 1300 lb/in2 Compression stress: 1500 lb/in2 Modulus of elasticity: 1,600,000 lb/in2

University of Massachusetts Amherst

Concrete Components

Sand (Fine Aggregate) Gravel (Coarse Aggregate) Cement (Binder) Water Air

Fiber-Reinforced Composites

Composite Laminate

Ability to withstand a given stress without failure

Depends on type of material and type of force (tension or compression)

Tensile Failure

University of Massachusetts Amherst

Compressive Failure

Stiffness (Rigidity)

Property related to deformation Stiffer structural elements deform less under the same applied load Stiffness depends on type of material (E), structural shape, and structural configuration Two main types

Axial stiffness Bending stiffness

Axial Stiffness

T

DL Stiffness = T / DL Example: Lo T = 100 lb DL = 0.12 in. Stiffness = 100 lb / 0.12 in. = 833 lb/in.

T

University of Massachusetts Amherst

Bending Stiffness

Displacement Force

Stiffness = Force / Displacement Example: Force = 1,000 lb Displacement = 0.5 in. Stiffness = 1,000 lb / 0.5 in. = 2,000 lb/in.

Stiff

Stiffer

Stiffest

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Loads

Compression

Tension

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Braced Frame

Infilled Frame

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Rigid Joints

Concepts in Equilibrium

Forces are a type of quantity called vectors

Defined by magnitude and direction

Statement of equilibrium

Net force at a point in a structure = zero (summation of forces = zero)

Net force at a point is determined using a force polygon to account for magnitude and direction

Moment of Force = Force x Distance To neutralize rotation about point A, moments from the two forces has to be equal and opposite: 100 lb x 3 ft = 50 lb x 6 ft

3 ft

6 ft

Side BC A Side AB Side AC 6 ft 36.9 B 100 lb C Side AB = 8 ft 6 ft 10 ft 6 ft = 1.333

= 1.667

Force BC Force AB

= 1.333

Force BC = 1.333 x 100 lb = 133.3 lb Force AC = 1.667 Force AB Force AC = 1.667 x 100 lb = 166.7 lb

8 ft

Graphic Statics

100 lb

36.9

133.3 lb 1 Square = 10 lb

University of Massachusetts Amherst

Force, P

1/3 L 2/3 P

2/3 L

Span, L

1/3 P

8,000 lb 15 ft 30 ft

32,000 lb 45 ft 30 ft L = 60 ft

22,000 lb*

*Front axle: 8,000 lb x 45/60 = 6,000 lb Rear axle: 32,000 lb x 30/60 = 16,000 lb

18,000 lb**

**Front axle: 8,000 lb x 15/60 = 2,000 lb Rear axle: 32,000 lb x 30/60 = 16,000 lb

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