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Structural Engineering

Sergio F. Brea
STEM Education Institute Saturday Workshop September 30, 2006

University of Massachusetts Amherst

Outline
Introduction to Structural Engineering

Forces in Structures
Structural Systems Civil Engineering Materials

Some Definitions of Important Structural Properties

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Structural Engineering
What does a Structural Engineer do?
A Structural Engineer designs the structural systems and structural elements in buildings, bridges, stadiums, tunnels, and other civil engineering works (bones)

Design: process of determining location, material, and size of structural elements to resist forces acting in a structure

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Engineering Design Process


Identify the problem (challenge) Explore alternative solutions
Research past experience Brainstorm Preliminary design of most promising solutions

Analyze and design one or more viable solutions Testing and evaluation of solution
Experimental testing (prototype) or field tests Peer evaluation

Build solution using available resources (materials, equipment, labor)

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Design Process in Structural Engineering


Select material for construction

Determine appropriate structural system for a particular case Determine forces acting on a structure
Calculate size of members and connections to avoid failure (collapse) or excessive deformation
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Examples of Typical Structures

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Forces in Structures

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Forces Acting in Structures


Forces induced by gravity
Dead Loads (permanent): self-weight of structure and attachments Live Loads (transient): moving loads (e.g. occupants, vehicles)

Forces induced by wind Forces induced by earthquakes Forces induced by rain/snow Fluid pressures Others
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Forces Acting in Structures

Vertical: Gravity

Lateral: Wind, Earthquake

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Global Stability

Sliding

Overturning

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Forces in Structural Elements


100 lb

100 lb

Tension
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Compression

Forces in Structural Elements (cont.)


100 lb

Bending

Torsion
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Typical Structural Systems (1)

Arch

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Typical Structural Systems (2)

C C T C

Truss

T Forces in Truss Members


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Typical Structural Systems (3)

Frame

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Typical Structural Systems (4)

Flat Plate
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Typical Structural Systems (5)

Folded Plate
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Typical Structural Systems (6)

Shells

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Properties of Civil Engineering Materials

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Definition of Stress
T Stress = Force/Area Section X Example (English Units): T = 1,000 lb (1 kip) A = 10 in2. Stress = 1,000/10 = 100 lb/in2 Example (SI Units): Section X 1 lb = 4.448 N (Newton) 1 in = 25.4 mm T = 1,000 lb x 4.448 N/lb = 4448 N A = 10 in2 x (25.4 mm)2 = 6450 mm2 (1 in)2 T T
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Stress = 4448/6450 = 0.69 N/mm2 (MPa)

Definition of Strain
T Strain = DL / Lo Example: Lo = 10 in. DL = 0.12 in. Lo

DL

Strain = 0.12 / 10 = 0.012 in./in.


Strain is dimensionless!! (same in English or SI units)

T
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Stress Strain Behavior of Elastic Mats.


Stress

E E = Modulus of Elasticity = Stress / Strain

Strain

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Types of Stress-Strain Behavior


Stress Stress

E Strain (a) Linear Elastic Stress Stress Strain (b) Non-linear Elastic

(c) Elastic-plastic

Plastic strain

Strain

Plastic strain

Strain (d) Non-linear Plastic

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Materials Used in Civil Engineering


Stone and Masonry

Metals
Cast Iron Steel Aluminum

Concrete Wood Fiber-Reinforced Plastics


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Engineering Properties of Materials


Steel
Maximum stress: 40,000 120,000 lb/in2 Maximum strain: 0.2 0.4 Modulus of elasticity: 29,000,000 lb/in2

Concrete
Maximum stress: 4,000 12,000 lb/in2 Maximum strain: 0.004 Modulus of elasticity: 3,600,000 6,200,000 lb/in2

Wood
Values depend on wood grade. Below are some samples Tension stress: 1300 lb/in2 Compression stress: 1500 lb/in2 Modulus of elasticity: 1,600,000 lb/in2
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Concrete Components
Sand (Fine Aggregate) Gravel (Coarse Aggregate) Cement (Binder) Water Air

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Fiber-Reinforced Composites

Composite Laminate

Polymer Matrix Fiber Materials Aramid (Kevlar) Carbon Glass

Polyester Epoxy Vinylester

Functions of matrix: Force transfer to fibers Compressive strength Chemical protection

Function of fibers: Provide stiffness Tensile strength

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Important Structural Properties

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Engineering Properties of Structural Elements Strength


Ability to withstand a given stress without failure
Depends on type of material and type of force (tension or compression)

Tensile Failure
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Compressive Failure

Engineering Properties of Structural Elements


Stiffness (Rigidity)
Property related to deformation Stiffer structural elements deform less under the same applied load Stiffness depends on type of material (E), structural shape, and structural configuration Two main types
Axial stiffness Bending stiffness

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Axial Stiffness
T

DL Stiffness = T / DL Example: Lo T = 100 lb DL = 0.12 in. Stiffness = 100 lb / 0.12 in. = 833 lb/in.

T
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Bending Stiffness
Displacement Force

Stiffness = Force / Displacement Example: Force = 1,000 lb Displacement = 0.5 in. Stiffness = 1,000 lb / 0.5 in. = 2,000 lb/in.

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Stiffness of Different Structural Shapes

Stiff

Stiffer

Stiffest
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Types of Structural Elements Bars and Cables

Bars can carry either tension or compression

Cables can only carry tension

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Types of Structural Elements Beams


Loads

Compression

Tension
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Providing Stability for Lateral Loads

Racking Failure of Pinned Frame

Braced Frame

Infilled Frame
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Rigid Joints

Concepts in Equilibrium

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Equilibrium of Forces (Statics)


Forces are a type of quantity called vectors
Defined by magnitude and direction

Statement of equilibrium
Net force at a point in a structure = zero (summation of forces = zero)

Net force at a point is determined using a force polygon to account for magnitude and direction

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Moment (Rotational) Equilibrium

Moment of Force = Force x Distance To neutralize rotation about point A, moments from the two forces has to be equal and opposite: 100 lb x 3 ft = 50 lb x 6 ft

3 ft

6 ft

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Force Calculation in Simple Structure


Side BC A Side AB Side AC 6 ft 36.9 B 100 lb C Side AB = 8 ft 6 ft 10 ft 6 ft = 1.333

= 1.667

Force BC Force AB

= 1.333

Force BC = 1.333 x 100 lb = 133.3 lb Force AC = 1.667 Force AB Force AC = 1.667 x 100 lb = 166.7 lb

8 ft

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Graphic Statics

100 lb
36.9

133.3 lb 1 Square = 10 lb
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Force Transfer from Beams to Supports


Force, P

1/3 L 2/3 P

2/3 L

Span, L

1/3 P

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Force Transfer Example - Bridge

8,000 lb 15 ft 30 ft

32,000 lb 45 ft 30 ft L = 60 ft

22,000 lb*
*Front axle: 8,000 lb x 45/60 = 6,000 lb Rear axle: 32,000 lb x 30/60 = 16,000 lb

18,000 lb**
**Front axle: 8,000 lb x 15/60 = 2,000 lb Rear axle: 32,000 lb x 30/60 = 16,000 lb

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